Cynosurus indicus L., Sp. Pl. 72. 1753.
Echinochloa indica Gaertn. var. oligostachya Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 41: 636. 1927.
Annuals; culms tufted, sheaths laterally compressed and keeled; ligule about 1mm long. Inflorescence of 1 to several digitate spikes, spikes 3-9 cm long. Spikelets more than 4-flowered, about 5 mm long; glumes keeled, membranous, lanceolate, 1-nerved, unequal; lower glume 2 mm long; upper glumes 3 mm long; the lowest floret about 3 mm long; lemma membranous, keeled and winged, semi-ovate in side view, 1-nerved, as long as the floret; palea membranous, 2-keeled, shorter than the lemma; anthers 3, about 0.6 mm long. Utricle ovate, about 1.5 mm long, ventrally grooved,finely marked with comb-like wrinkles.
TAIPEI: Taipei, Hsu 128*. Shihmen, Hsu 1259. ILAN: Yuanshan, Kuoh 74. TAOYUAN: Neili, Hsu 1226.
MIAOLI: Tahu, Chen 2. TAICHUNG: Fantzuliao, Hsu 4685. CHANGHUA: Yuhbuu, Kuoh et al. 006. NANTOU: Sun Moon. Lake, Hsu 1343. CHIAYI: Chiayi, Wang 20005. YUNLIN: Peikang, Wang 20129. TAINAN: Hsinhua, Hsu 703; Tainan, Hsu 729. PENGHU: Makung, Kuoh 1104. TAlTUNG: Chihpen, Hsu 985; Botel Tobago, Hsu 4954.
Distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
The root-systems are deep and numerous, therefore it is not easy to eradicate. This is one of the common grasses growing everywhere in Taiwan.
A free hand leaf section show a series of bulliform cells on the upper epidermis
midrib 中肋: (sm)small:with one vascular bundle
leaf surface 表面: (nod)nodules on both surfaces
chlorenchyma 葉綠組織: (radia)cells radiate and lesser than bundle sheath cell in width
bundle sheath 維管束鞘: (dko)two bundle sheaths the outer one with conspicuous chloroplast
buliform cells well developed 泡狀細胞發達: mainly appear in adaxial side
no small vein under buliform cells泡狀細胞下無小脈: (bcfan)bulliform cell with colorless cells extend beneath it
chlorenchyma cell number between two adjacent veins: 2
chloroplast form in bundle sheath 束鞘細胞內之葉綠體型式: (inn)large amount and in centripetal site
mestome sheath 內束鞘細胞: (Xyms+)metaxylem pole adjacent with mestome sheath
distance between two adjancent vein 脈間距: 190 micrometer
length/weidth ratio of bundle sheath in LS 束鞘細胞縱面長寬比: 1
chlorenchyma cell shape in LS 葉綠細胞縱面形狀: lobed