Description from Flora of China
Herbs perennial. Leaves corrugate; floral and stem leaves similar, gradually reduced upward. Verticillasters axillary. Flowers usually sessile. Calyx tubular or tubular-campanulate, throat not oblique; veins 5, 10, or 11, elevated; teeth 5, equal, sinuses between them often expanded into triangular, sometimes emarginate teeth. Corolla yellow, purple, or white, 2-lipped; tube included or slightly exserted, usually villous annulate inside; upper lip straight or galeate, concave or folded/keeled, rarely narrowly falcate, entire or fringed-denticulate, tomentose or villous; lower lip spreading, 3-lobed, middle lobe wider than lateral lobes. Stamens didynamous, anterior 2 longer, ascending to upper lip of corolla; posterior 2 often with appendages at base; anthers close together in pairs, with 2, divaricate, apically confluent cells. Style lobes subulate, posterior usually to 1/2 as long as anterior, rarely equal. Nutlets ovoid, triquetrous, apex obtuse, rarely truncate.
More than 100 species: Africa, Asia, Europe; 43 species in China, particularly diverse in Sichuan and Yunnan.
Adylov, Kamelin, and Makhmedov (Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 23: 110-114, 1986) and Vvedensky (Conspect. Fl. As. Med. 9: 74-113, 1987) believe that species 2-43 in this account,
along with 2 Chinese species of Eremostachys, should be transferred to Phlomoides.