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10. Arachniodes Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae. 2: 241. 1828.

East Indian holly fern [Greek arachnion, spider's web, and -odes, having the form or nature of; it has been suggested that Blume saw fungal hyphae or spider webs on his original material]

Alan R. Smith

Plants terrestrial. Stems moderately long- to short-creeping, stolons absent. Leaves monomorphic, evergreen. Petiole ± as long as blade, base not swollen; vascular bundles more than 3, arranged in an arc, ± round in cross section. Blade broadly deltate or pentagonal, 2--3-pinnate-pinnatifid, gradually to abruptly reduced distally to pinnate or pinnatifid apex, papery to somewhat leathery. Pinnae not articulate to rachis, segment margins and especially apex spinulose; proximal pinnae largest, petiolulate, inequilateral with basal basiscopic pinnule much larger and more elongate than more distal pinnules; costae adaxially grooved, grooves continuous from rachis to costae to costules; indument of hairlike scales abaxially, absent adaxially. Veins free, forked. Sori in 1 row between midrib and margin, round; indusia round-reniform, attached at narrow sinus, persistent. Spores brownish, rugate or tuberculate, sometimes spiny. x = 41.

Species ca. 50 (1 in the flora naturalized from Asia): tropics and subtropics, mostly in e Asia and Pacific Islands, a few in Africa, ca. 4 in Mexico, Central America, South America.


Ching, R. C. 1934. A revision of the compound leaved Polysticha and other related species in the continental Asia including Japan and Formosa. Sinensia 5: 23--91. Gordon, J. E. 1981. Arachniodes simplicior new to South Carolina and the United States. Amer. Fern J. 71: 65--68. Tindale, M. D. 1960. Pteridophyta of south eastern Australia. Contr. New South Wales Natl. Herb., Fl. Ser. 211: 47--78.

Lower Taxon


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