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194. Juncaginaceae Richard

Arrow-grass Family

Robert R. Haynes ;C. Barre Hellquist

Herbs, perennial or annual, rhizomatous, evident stems absent; turions absent. Leaves basal, emersed, sessile; sheath persisting longer than blade, not leaving circular scar when shed, ligulate, auriculate with scarious lobes; blade linear; intravaginal squamules scales, more than 2. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, scapose spikes, spikelike racemes, rarely solitary flowers, without spathe, pedunculate; peduncle following fertilization not elongating, not spiraling. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same plant; subtending bracts absent; perianth present, rarely absent; tepals 1, or 6 in 1--2 series. Bisexual and staminate flowers: stamens 1, 4, or 6, epitepalous, when 4 or 6, then in 2--3 series; anthers distinct, dehiscing longitudinally; pollen globose. Pistillate and bisexual flowers: pistils 1, 3, or 6, not stipitate, when 3 or 6, coherent or weakly connate; ovules basal, anatropous. Fruits nutlets or schizocarps. Seeds 1; embryo straight.

Genera 4, species ca. 15 (2 genera, 5 species in the flora): nearly worldwide.


Dahlgren, R. M. T., H. T. Clifford, and P. F. Yeo. 1985. The Families of Monocotyledons. Berlin. Haynes, R. R. and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. 1985. A generic treatment of Alismatidae in the Neotropics. Acta Amazon. 15(suppl.): 153--193. Larsen, K. 1966. Cytotaxonomical note on Lilaea. Bot. Not. 119: 496--497. Reveal, J. L. 1977. Juncaginaceae. In: A. Cronquist et al. 1972+. Intermountain Flora. 5+ vols. New York and London. Vol. 6, pp. 18--22. Thieret, J. W. 1988. The Juncaginaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 69: 1--23. Thorne, R. F. 1993. Juncaginaceae. In: J. C. Hickman, ed. 1993. The Jepson Manual. Higher Plants of California. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London. Pp. 1166--1168.

1 Inflorescences both scapose spikelike racemes with bisexual and unisexual flowers and sessile with pistillate flowers; pistils 1   1 Lilaea
+ Inflorescences all scapose spikelike racemes with bisexual flowers; fertile pistils 3 or 6   2 Triglochin

Lower Taxa


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