77. Neckeraceae Schimper
Inés Sastre-De Jesús
Plants small to large, shelf-forming or dendroid, green, yellowish, or brownish, glossy to dull. Stems creeping, or forming stipe perpendicular to substrate; secondary branches produced regularly along stem or only distally; paraphyllia absent or present, few to many, simple or branched; pseudoparaphyllia filamentous to foliose; rhizoids present only on primary stem or branch apices that touch substrate. Primary stem leaves appressed, erect-appressed, or erect-spreading, ovate, lanceolate, or deltoid; margins entire to serrulate; apex obtuse, broadly acute, or acute; ecostate, costa double and short, or single; distal medial laminal cells rhomboidal to fusiform, smooth to papillose. Stipe leaves of dendroid plants appressed, erect-spreading, or erect, obovate, deltoid, or lanceolate; margins plane to recurved, usually entire; apex acute; costa single; distal medial laminal cells fusiform, linear to rectangular. Secondary stem and branch leaves widely erect, erect-spreading, or spreading, ovate, ovate-ligulate, oblong-ligulate, oblong-ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, symmetric or asymmetric, flat or undulate, crisped or slightly plicate; base occasionally auriculate, basal lobes absent (small lobe present at adaxial base of lateral leaves in Homaliadelphus); margins usually entire basally, slightly serrulate, serrate, or entire at apex; apex truncate, obtuse, obtuse-apiculate, or broadly to narrowly acute; costa double, single, or ecostate; basal laminal cells linear to rectangular, smooth or prorulose, walls pitted or not; distal medial cells rhomboidal, fusiform to linear, or linear-flexuose; apical cells round, oval, rhombic, rhomboidal, or fusiform. Sexual condition synoicous, autoicous, or dioicous. Seta short to long, smooth. Capsule erect, suberect, or horizontal, immersed to exserted; peristome double (single in Neomacounia); exostome with external surface smooth or cross striolate, papillose distally; endostome basal membrane low or high, segments linear to lanceolate, smooth to papillose, perforated along keel by narrow slits, cilia absent or 1-3, often connate. Calyptra cucullate, naked or hairy. Spores papillose to finely papillose.
Genera 29, species ca. 140 (8 genera, 14 species in the flora): nearly worldwide; temperate and tropical regions.
Neckeraceae traditionally has included shelf-forming (Homalia, Neckera, and Neckeropsis) and dendroid (Porotrichum and Thamnobryum) pleurocarpous mosses. As characterized by M. Fleischer (1906) and V. F. Brotherus (1924-1925), the family was divided into Neckeroideae
Brotherus and Thamnioideae M. Fleischer, reflecting the two growth forms. The relationship 602 between these two groups has been demonstrated in phylogenetic analyses (E. De Luna et al. 2000; H. Tsubota et al. 2004; A. V. Troitsky et al. 2007), where both groups are nested in a larger clade.