4. Cissampelos Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1031. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 455, 1754.
Greek pertaining to ivy or vine)
Vines , twining or clambering. Stems green, glabrous to densely pilose. Leaves peltate or petiole inserted at base of blade. Leaf blade usually reniform, sometimes nearly orbiculate, base cordate to truncate, margins entire, apex acute to rounded, often retuse, mucronate; surfaces abaxially pale, pilose to densely pilose, adaxially glabrous to pilose. Inflorescences: pistillate inflorescences fascicles from axils of normal leaves, individual flowers in axils of reduced leaves or bracts upon secondary axillary branches. Pistillate flowers: sepal 1, obovate, abaxially pubescent; petal 1; staminodes absent; pistil 1; ovary asymmetrically pouched, pilose [or glabrous]; stigma 3-5-lobed. [ Staminate inflorescences and flowers, and mature fruits have not been found in the flora; descriptions given here are for extraterritorial species. Staminate inflorescences axillary, multiflowered cymes from normal leaves, reduced leaves, or bracts. Staminate flowers 2-ranked; sepals 4; petals 4, connate, corolla cup-shaped; stamens 4; anthers on column formed by fused filaments, 1-locular, dehiscing transversely. Drupes nearly globose, pubescent; endocarp bony, warty, ribbed.]
Species 19 (1 in the flora): tropical and subtropical regions, North America, South America, Africa, and Asia.
Rhodes, D. G. 1975. A revision of the genus Cissampelos. Phytologia 30(6): 415-484.