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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 27 | Encalyptaceae

2. Encalypta Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond. 60. 1801.

[Greek en, in, and kalyptos, cover or veil or lid, alluding to the calyptra]

Plants small to medium sized, frequently gregarious. Stems irregularly branched, occasionally tomentose; central strand absent or weakly differentiated. Leaves oblong, elliptic, narrowly spathulate or occasionally lanceolate; apex broadly acute to rounded, mucronate to hair-pointed, occasionally cucullate; margins plane to weakly recurved on one or both sides, entire; costa single, subpercurrent to long-excurrent, awn smooth, hyaline; distal laminal cells more or less quadrate, papillose on one or both exposed surfaces with several large, branching or C-shaped papillae; marginal cells sometimes longer proximally, forming a very weak border; basal cells long-rectangular, thin-walled, generally smooth, cross walls frequently distinctly colored. Sexual condition autoicous. Seta elongate, smooth, brown to red or dark red. Capsule generally long-exserted or just emergent, erect to inclined, cylindric, smooth or distinctly furrowed; gymnostomous or peristomate, stomata few; peristome single, double or absent, exostome frequently reduced to small, irregular projections or teeth long, narrow, papillose; operculum usually conic-rostrate. Calyptra smooth or papillose distally or frequently only on rostrum, entire, fringed or lacerate below, fringe small or well developed. Spores generally large, ornamentation papillose to warty, or ridged.

Species 34 (14 in the flora): North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Indian Ocean Islands (Madagascar), Pacific Islands (New Zealand), Australia.

The large, straw-colored calyptrae of Encalypta are generally present in mature colonies, growing on shallow soil over rock in exposed or moderately sheltered recesses. Encalypta can be separated from the only other genus in the family, Bryobrittonia, by papillose distal leaf cells and more or less entire leaf margins.

Excluded Species:

Encalypta microstoma Balsamo & De Notaris
No specimens were seen; see D. G. Horton (1983).

1 Vegetative leaves without long awn; apex muticous, mucronate, or apiculate   (2)
+ Some or all vegetative leaves with distinct awns; apex broad to obtuse or acute   (8)
2 (1) Stems covered with dense mass of rhizoidal gemmae.   1 Encalypta procera
+ Stems without rhizoidal gemmae   (3)
3 (2) Costa short-excurrent or percurrent; peristome present   (4)
+ Costa ending before apex on most leaves; peristome absent   (5)
4 (3) Leaves oblong to elliptical, 4-6 mm; regularly apiculate; peristome single.   6 Encalypta ciliata
+ Leaves ligulate to lingulate or narrowly lanceolate, 3-5 mm; costa ending before apex or short-excurrent; peristome double.   7 Encalypta affinis
5 (3) Leaves broadly oblong to elliptical, 3-4 mm; calyptra fringed or not   (6)
+ Leaves elliptical to ligulate or lingulate, 1-3 mm; calyptra lacerate   (7)
6 (5) Calyptra base not fringed; costa generally smooth distally adaxially; capsule weakly striate; spores warty, 22-35 µm.   2 Encalypta vulgaris
+ Calyptra irregularly fringed at base; costa papillose distally adaxially; capsule smooth to slightly wrinkled; spores finely pitted, 30-35 µm.   3 Encalypta texana
7 (5) Leaves broadly elliptical to ligulate, 1-2 mm; margins plane to weakly recurved along one margin; spores papillose, 25-28 µm.   4 Encalypta mutica
+ Leaves broadly oblong to lingulate, 2-3 mm; margins plane; spores ridged, 35-40 µm   5 Encalypta flowersiana
8 (1) Leaves apiculate to short-awned   (9)
+ Leaves short- to long-awned   (12)
9 (8) Peristome well developed; leaf apex broad to obtuse   (10)
+ Peristome weak or absent; leaf apex acute   (11)
10 (9) Capsules distinctly ribbed; spores warty, 35-37 µm; leaves oblong to lingulate, 1.5-2.5 mm   8 Encalypta vittiana (in part)
+ Capsules ± smooth, not ribbed; spores granulate, 60-80 µm; leaves narrowly spathulate to lingulate, 1.3-2.5 mm.   9 Encalypta longicollis (in part)
11 (9) Leaves lanceolate; peristome absent.   10 Encalypta alpina
+ Leaves narrowly oblong; peristome present, weak.   11 Encalypta rhaptocarpa (in part)
12 (8) Peristome absent   (13)
+ Peristome present   (14)
13 (12) Leaves oblong, 1.7-3 mm; seta elongate.   12 Encalypta spathulata
+ Leaves broadly oblong to oval-spathulate, 2-4 mm; seta short.   13 Encalypta brevipes
14 (12) Capsules strongly ribbed   (15)
+ Capsules not noticeably ribbed   (16)
15 (14) Calyptra base fringed; leaves lingulate, apiculate to very short-awned.   8 Encalypta vittiana (in part)
+ Calyptra base erose; leaves oblong-lanceolate, generally with a distinct awn   11 Encalypta rhaptocarpa (in part)
16 (14) Leaves ligulate to narrowly spathulate, 1.5-3.5 mm; capsules short- cylindric; spores granulate.   9 Encalypta longicollis (in part)
+ Leaves broad oblong to oblong spathulate, 2-6 mm; capsules cylindric; spores warty or ridged.   14 Encalypta brevicollis

  • List of lower taxa


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