4. Flueggea Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 4: 637, 757. 1806. (as Flüggea).
Bushweed [For Johannes Flüggé, 1775–1816, German botanist] Bushweed [For Johannes Flüggé, 1775–1816, German botanist]
Geoffrey A. Levin
Shrubs [trees], usually dioecious, rarely monoecious, glabrous [pubescent, hairs simple]; branching not phyllanthoid. Leaves deciduous [persistent], alternate, simple, all well developed; stipules deciduous [persistent]; blade margins entire. Inflorescences unisexual, fascicles [racemes or panicles, or pistillate flowers solitary]. Pedicels present. Staminate flowers: sepals [4–]5[–7], distinct; petals 0; nectary extrastaminal, [4–]5[–7] glands [annular, lobed]; stamens [4–]5[–7]; filaments distinct; connectives not extending beyond anthers; pistillode [2–]3-divided nearly to base [absent]. Pistillate flowers: sepals persistent, [4–]5[–7], distinct; petals 0; nectary annular, entire [angled or lobed]; pistil [2–]3[–4]-carpellate; styles [2–]3[–4], connate proximally, 2-fid. Fruits berries [capsules]. Seeds 2 per locule, rounded-trigonous; seed coat dry, reticulate or finely verrucose [smooth]; caruncle absent. x = 13.
Species 16 (1 in the flora): introduced, Florida; West Indies, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands, Australia; primarily tropical and subtropical regions.
Flueggea is primarily an Old World genus, with only three species found in the Neotropics. Phylogenetic studies using DNA sequence data have shown it is monophyletic (with the inclusion of the monospecific Richeriella Pax & K. Hoffmann) and is sister to Heterosavia, although relatively few species have been sampled (H. Kathriarachchi et al. 2006). The clade of Flueggea plus Heterosavia is in turn sister to Phyllanthus in the broad sense.
SELECTED REFERENCE Webster, G. L. 1984. A revision of Flueggea (Euphorbiaceae). Allertonia 3: 259–312.