2. Lophiola Ker Gawler, Bot. Mag. 39: plate 1596. 1813.
Golden-crest [Greek lophia, mane or crest, in reference to pubescence on adaxial sides of tepals]
Rhizomes brown to whitish, stoloniferous. Stems erect. Leaves basal and cauline, blade linear. Inflorescences: bracts present. Flowers: tepals with adaxial crest of moniliform trichomes; stamens 6, shorter than tepals; ovary half-inferior to nearly superior, 1-locular distally with 3 parietal placentae and 3-locular proximally with axile placentae; ovules numerous in each locule, arranged in several vertical rows. Capsules ± globose or ovoid. Seeds thin, elongate, variously curved, many per locule; seed coat reticulate; hilum basal.
Species 1: North America.
M. L. Fernald (1921) recognized three species of Lophiola: L. aurea in the southeastern United States, L. americana in New Jersey and Delaware, and L. septentrionalis in Nova Scotia. Pending more detailed studies, only one species is recognized here. While the genus is retained in the Haemodoraceae in this treatment, recent research indicates that Lophiola is quite different from other Haemodoraceae and may be best placed in Liliaceae subfam. Melanthioideae (J. D. Ambrose 1985), Tecophilaeaceae (R. M. T. Dahlgren et al. 1985), or Nartheciaceae (W. B. Zomlefer 1997).
Ambrose, J. D. 1985. Lophiola, familial affinity with the Liliaceae. Taxon 34: 140–150. Fernald, M. L. 1921. The Gray Herbarium expedition to Nova Scotia, 1920. Rhodora 23: 153–171, 223–245. Zavada, M., Zu X. L., and J. M. Edwards. 1983. On the taxonomic status of Lophiola aurea Ker-Gawler. Rhodora 85: 73–81. Zomlefer, W. B. 1997. The genera of Nartheciaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Pap. Bot. 2: 195–211.