40. Modiola Moench, Methodus. 619. 1794.
[Latin modiolus, wheel hub, alluding to fruit shape] [Latin modiolus, wheel hub, alluding to fruit shape]
Steven R. Hill
Abutilodes Kuntze; Diadesma Rafinesque; Modanthos Alefeld
Herbs, perennial, usually glabrate. Stems procumbent, not viscid, sometimes with few simple hairs on herbage. Leaves: stipules persistent, ovate; blade orbiculate, usually palmately 5–7- ribbed, narrowly triangular; corolla wide-campanulate, salmon-orange, often with darker center, drying brick red; staminal column included; ovary 16–22-carpellate; ovules 1 per cell; style 16–22-branched; stigmas capitate. Fruits schizocarps, erect, not inflated, flattened disc indented in center, not indurate, setose; mericarps 16–22, 2-celled, dorsally setose, laterally glabrous, with 2 apical spurs/spines, chamber divided by endoglossum or partial septum, lower cell strongly rugose, indehiscent, upper cell smoother, dehiscent. Seeds 1 per cell, rounded, with proximal notch, sparsely, minutely hairy. x = 9.
Species 1: introduced; Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America (to n Argentina), Europe.
Modiola is undoubtedly adventive over much of its range and possibly native only in northern Argentina and the Paraná basin of South America.