19. Vesicularia (Müller Hal.) Müller Hal., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 23: 330. 1896. • [Latin vesicularis, like a little bladder, alluding to lax areolation of laminal cells].
Stephen L. Timme
Hypnum subsect. Vesicularia Müller Hal., Syn. Musc. Frond. 2: 233. 1851; Ectropothecium sect. Vesicularia (Müller Hal.) Renauld
Plants small to medium-sized, in thin to dense mats, usually pale green to yellowish, sometimes dark green, often shiny. Stems creeping, freely branched, irregularly branched to pinnate; hyalodermis absent, central strand present or absent; pseudoparaphyllia linear to foliose. Leaves dimorphic; ventral usually smaller than dorsal, ± appressed, lanceolate to usually acuminate; dorsal leaves spreading to secund, oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, somewhat asymmetric; base weakly decurrent; margins plane, entire or serrulate toward apex; apex acute or short- to long-acuminate, sometimes apiculate; costa double and short or ecostate; alar cells not or slightly differentiated; laminal cells smooth, . Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Sexual condition autoicous; perichaetial leaves erect, ovoid, oblong-ovoid, or oblong-ovate, apex subulate. Seta reddish, reddish orange, or yellow-orange. Capsule horizontal to pendent, ovoid to oblong-ovoid, ± asymmetric, constricted below mouth when dry; annulus differentiated; operculum apiculate to short-rostrate; peristome double; exostome teeth with external surface cross striolate, papillose distally; endostome basal membrane high, segments keeled, cilia usually in groups of 1-3. Calyptra naked. Spores spheric, finely papillose to nearly smooth.
Species 175-190 (1 in the flora): se United States, Mexico, West Indies, Central America (Guatemala), n South America, Asia (India, Japan), Africa, Indian Ocean Islands (Madagascar), Pacific Islands (Philippines), Australia.
Vesicularia is a poorly studied genus, and many of its species will undoubtedly be synonymous with other taxa when the group is studied on a worldwide basis.