1. Cichorium intybus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 813. 1753.
Perennials (sometimes flowering first year). Leaves: blades of basal 5–35+ × 1–8(–12+) cm; cauline similar, smaller, narrower, distal mostly linear. Peduncles mostly 0–2 mm, some narrowly clavate, 12–45(–85+) mm. Phyllaries: outer 5–6 lance-ovate to lanceolate, 4–7 mm, basally cartilaginous, distally herbaceous, inner 8+ lance-linear to linear, 6–12 mm, herbaceous, all usually with some gland-tipped hairs 0.5–0.8 mm on margins near bases or on abaxial faces toward tips. Cypselae 2–3 mm; pappi 0.01–0.2 mm. 2n = 18.
Flowering Apr–Jul. Disturbed sites; 0–1500 m; introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Ark., Calif., Conn., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Maine, Mass., Mich., Mo., Nev., N.H., N.Y., N.C., Pa., R.I., Tex., Utah, Vt.; Europe; Asia; introduced also in Africa, South America.
Leaves of Cichorium intybus are sometimes used as salad greens; the roasted roots are sometimes ground and used as an addition to (or adulterant of) coffee.