187a. Asteraceae Martinov tribe Mutisieae Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts. 88: 199. 1819.
Annuals, perennials, subshrubs, or shrubs (sometimes clambering) [trees, vines]. Leaves basal and/or cauline; alternate [opposite]; petiolate or sessile; margins entire, dentate, pinnately lobed, or pinnatifid [pinnately compound, spiny, tipped with tendrils]. Heads homogamous (discoid in Gochnatia, Hecastocleis; quasi-discoid, -radiate, or -liguliflorous in Acourtia, Trixis) or heterogamous (disciform in Adenocaulon, disciform or quasi-radiate or -liguliflorous in Chaptalia and Leibnitzia; sometimes cleistogamous in Chaptalia and Leibnitzia); borne singly (sometimes on scapiform stems) or in corymbiform, paniculiform, or racemiform arrays (aggregated in second-order heads, florets 1–3 per individual head in Hecastocleis). Calyculi usually 0 (of 3–7 bractlets in Trixis; second-order heads subtended by leaflike bracts in Hecastocleis). Phyllaries persistent or tardily falling, in 1–5+ series, distinct or connate, unequal to subequal, usually ± herbaceous, margins and apices seldom notably scarious. Receptacles flat to convex, epaleate [paleate] (usually ± foveolate to alveolate, margins of sockets sometimes ± membranous). Florets of 1, 2, or 3+ kinds in a head (some not readily assignable to usual ray- and disc-floret categories, ± 3 combinations in the flora): (1) all florets bisexual and fertile, corollas actinomorphic (Gochnatia, Hecastocleis) or zygomorphic (often 2-lipped; Acourtia, Trixis); (2) outer florets pistillate and inner bisexual, corollas actinomorphic (Adenocaulon); and (3) outer florets pistillate, corollas usually zygomorphic (raylike or liguliform to 2-lipped), sometimes lacking limbs (reduced to tubes), inner florets bisexual or functionally staminate, corollas zygomorphic (2-lipped) or actinomorphic (Chaptalia, Leibnitzia); anther bases ± tailed, apical appendages ovate or lanceolate to linear [none]; styles (bisexual, fertile florets) abaxially glabrous or papillate to hairy, branches ± linear, adaxially stigmatic in 2 lines from bases nearly to apices (± continuous around apices in Adenocaulon), apices rounded or truncate, appendages essentially none. Cypselae ± monomorphic within heads, usually cylindric, clavate, fusiform, or turbinate, sometimes ± beaked, bodies smooth or ribbed (glabrous, glabrate, sericeous, or velutinous; sometimes distally stipitate-glandular, Adenocaulon); pappi 0 or persistent, of smooth or barbellulate to plumose bristles or subulate to setiform and plumose scales.
Genera ca. 76, species ca. 1000 (7 genera, 14 species in the flora): North America, mostly South America, Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Australia.
Mutisieae as traditionally circumscribed is now considered to be polyphyletic. Molecular work has shown that Barnadesia and its allies, a South American group formerly placed in Mutisieae, constitute the basal clade of the family; they are now treated as a distinct subfamily, Barnadesioideae (K. Bremer and R. K. Jansen 1992). Similarly, J. L. Panero and V. A. Funk (2002) segregated two additional subfamilies from Mutisieae (based on Gochnatia and on Hecastocleis). Mutisieae in the broad sense are centered in the New World tropics and subtropics and are relatively poorly represented elsewhere.
Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hooker f. (Transvaal Daisy; perennials, leaves in basal rosettes, petioles 10–20+ cm, blades usually pinnately lobed, 12–25+ cm, abaxially lanate, peduncles scapiform, to 50+ cm, ray corollas red to orange, pink, or yellow, laminae 2–3+ cm) has been noted as established in Florida (http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu).
Hansen, H. V. 1990. Phylogenetic studies in the Gerbera-complex (Compositae, tribe Mutisieae, subtribe Mutisiinae). Nordic J. Bot. 9: 469–485. Kim, H. G., D. J. Lookerman, and R. K. Jansen. 2002. Systematic implications of ndhF sequence variation in the Mutisieae (Asteraceae). Syst. Bot. 27: 598–609. Simpson, B. B. and C. E. Anderson. 1978. Mutisieae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Ser. 2, part 10, pp. 1–13.