187f. Asteraceae Martinov tribe Calenduleae Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts. 88: 161. 1819.
Annuals, perennials, shrubs, or trees. Leaves cauline [rosulate]; usually alternate, sometimes opposite; petiolate or sessile; margins usually entire or dentate, sometimes lobed to dissected. Heads heterogamous (radiate), borne singly or in ± corymbiform arrays. Calyculi 0 (peduncular bractlets sometimes intergrade with phyllaries). Phyllaries persistent, in (1–)2(–3) series, distinct [connate], usually ± equal, usually herbaceous (sometimes fleshy), margins and/or apices ± scarious. Receptacles flat to conic, epaleate (sometimes bristly-setose). Ray florets in 1–2+ series (more in horticultural "doubles"), pistillate, fertile [styliferous and sterile or neuter]; corollas usually yellow to orange and/or cyanic to white (abaxial and adaxial faces often different colors). Disc florets usually functionally staminate, sometimes bisexual and fertile; corollas yellow, orange, or cyanic (sometimes combinations within corollas), lobes 5, ± deltate (tips sometimes terete or dilated); anther bases ± tailed, apical appendages ovate to deltate; styles abaxially papillate (at least near tips), branches sometimes barely discernible (0.5–1 mm), adaxially stigmatic in 2 lines from bases to apices, apices rounded to truncate, appendages penicillate or essentially none. Cypselae usually polymorphic within heads (straight, arcuate, contorted, or ± coiled), ± columnar to prismatic, sometimes obcompressed, compressed, or flattened, sometimes ± beaked, bodies usually tuberculate, ridged, and/or winged (usually glabrous; blue-black and drupelike in Chrysanthemoides); pappi 0 [bristles].
Genera ca. 8, species 100+ (4 genera, 7 species in the flora): introduced; most in Africa, also Atlantic Islands, Europe, and sw Asia; some are widely cultivated and become ± established in local floras.
Plants of Dimorphotheca cuneata (Thunberg) Lessing, a native of southern Africa, have been collected outside cultivation in Arizona (Gila County, ca. 1000 m): subshrubs or shrubs to 100 cm, leaves cuneate to obovate, 1–2(–3)cm, margins dentate to denticulate, faces ± glutinous, phyllaries usually 13, 6–9 mm, ray corollas abaxially bluish to violet, adaxially white, disc cypselae obovate to nearly orbiculate, 10 mm.
Norlindh, T. 1943. Studies in the Calenduleae 1. Monograph of the Genera Dimorphotheca, Castalis, Osteospermum, Gibbaria, and Chrysanthemoides. Lund.