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4c. Rosaceae Jussieu subfam. Amygdaloideae Arnott, Botany. 107. 1832.
[(as Amygdaleae)]

Luc Brouillet

Shrubs or trees, sometimes subshrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite, simple, sometimes pinnately compound; stipules present or absent. Flowers: torus absent or minute; carpels 1–5(–8), distinct or +/- connate (Maleae), free or +/- adnate to hypanthium (many Maleae), styles distinct or +/- connate (some Maleae); ovules (1 or)2(–5+), collateral, clustered, or biseriate. Fruits follicles aggregated or not, capsules, drupes aggregated or not, aggregated drupelets, pomes, or aggregated nutlets, rarely achenes or aggregated achenes; styles persistent or deciduous, not elongate (elongate in Gillenieae). x = 8, 9, 15, 17.

Tribes 9, genera 55, species ca. 1300 (9 tribes, 38 genera, 361 species, including 20 hybrids, in the flora): North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Atlantic Islands (Madeira), Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Australia.

Cyanogenic glycosides are usually present in Amygdaloideae; sorbitol is present.

The name Amygdaloideae Arnott (1832) has priority over Spiraeoideae Arnott (1832), used by D. Potter et al. (2007), because Amygdalaceae (1820) is an earlier conserved name.

SELECTED REFERENCES Campbell, C. S. et al. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships in Maloideae (Rosaceae): Evidence from sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and its congruence with morphology. Amer. J. Bot. 82: 903–918. Campbell, C. S., C. W. Greene, and T. A. Dickinson. 1991. Reproductive biology in subfam. Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 333–349. Evans, R. C. and C. S. Campbell. 2002. The origin of the apple subfamily (Rosaceae: Maloideae) is clarified by DNA sequence data from duplicated GBSSI genes. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1478–1484. Evans, R. C. and T. A. Dickinson. 1999. Floral ontogeny and morphology in subfamily Amygdaloideae T. & G. (Rosaceae). Int. J. Pl. Sci. 160: 955–979. Evans, R. C. and T. A. Dickinson. 1999b. Floral ontogeny and morphology in subfamily Spiraeoideae Endl. (Rosaceae). Int. J. Pl. Sci. 160: 981–1012. Iketani, H. and H. Ohashi. 1991. Anatomical structure of fruits and evolution of the tribe Sorbeae in the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). J. Jap. Bot. 66: 319–351. Lee, S. and J. Wen. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 150–160. Phipps, J. B. et al. 1990. A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2209–2269. Phipps, J. B. et al. 1991b. Origins and evolution of subfam. Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 303–332. Robertson, K. R. et al. 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 376–394. Robertson, K. R., J. B. Phipps, and J. R. Rohrer. 1992. Summary of leaves in the genera of Maloideae (Rosaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 81–94. Rohrer, J. R., K. R. Robertson, and J. B. Phipps. 1991. Variation in structure among fruits of Maloideae (Rosaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 78: 1617–1635. Rohrer, J. R., K. R. Robertson, and J. B. Phipps. 1994. Floral morphology of Maloideae (Rosaceae) and its systematic relevance. Amer. J. Bot. 81: 574–581. Sterling, C. 1966. Comparative morphology of the carpel in the Rosaceae. VIII. Spiraeoideae: Holodisceae, Neillieae, Spiraeeae, Ulmarieae. Amer. J. Bot. 53: 521–530.

Lower Taxa


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