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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Fumariaceae | Dicentra

3. Dicentra formosa (Haworth) Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 1: 118. 1842.

Pacific bleeding-heart

Fumaria formosa Haworth, Bot. Repos. 6: plate 393. 1800; Dicentra saccata (Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray) Walpers

Plants perennial, scapose, from elongate, stout rhizomes. Leaves (15-)25-40(-55) × (8-)12-20(-35) cm; blade with 3-5 orders of leaflets and lobes; abaxial surface and sometimes adaxial surface glaucous; penultimate lobes oblong, distal ones usually coarsely 3-toothed at apex, (4-)10-20(-50) × (1.5-)3-4(-8) mm. Inflorescences paniculate, 2-30-flowered, usually exceeding leaves; bracts linear-lanceolate, 4-7(-12) × 1-2 mm, apex acuminate. Flowers pendent; sepals lanceolate to ovate or nearly round, 2-7 × 2-3 mm; petals rose-purple, pink, cream, or pale yellow, rarely white; outer petals (12-)16-19(-24) × 3-6 mm, reflexed portion 2-5 mm; inner petals (12-)15-18(-22) mm, blade 2-4 mm wide, claw linear-elliptic to linear-lanceolate, 7-10(-12) × 1-2 mm, crest 1-2 mm diam., exceeding apex by 1-2 mm; filaments of each bundle connate from base to shortly below anthers except for a 2-3 mm portion of median filament just above base; nectariferous tissue borne along distinct portion of median filament; style 3-9 mm; stigma rhomboid, 2-horned. Capsules oblong, 4-5 mm diam. Seeds reniform, ca. 2 mm diam., finely reticulate, elaiosome present.

Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora): w North America.

Andrews has been cited almost universally as the author of Fumaria formosa . However, Haworth's authorship of the sixth volume of Andrews' Botanists' Repository (in which this species was originally described) generally has been overlooked, and it was actually Haworth who first delineated F . formosa (W. T. Stearn 1944).

Early attempts to cross Dicentra formosa with D . eximia (2 n = 16) failed, possibly because the D . formosa parents were tetraploids. Several later hybrids between the two species received plant patents and have become widely marketed throughout the flora area and elsewhere (K. R. Stern 1961, 1968; K. R. Stern and M. Ownbey 1971).

Both subspecies, as well as hybrids between them and Dicentra eximia , are widely cultivated.

The Skagit used a decoction of the roots of Dicentra formosa to expel worms; they chewed raw roots for toothaches (D. E. Moerman 1986, species not indicated).

1 Petals rose-purple to pink, rarely white; leaf blades adaxially not glaucous (rarely glaucescent).   3a subsp. formosa
+ Petals cream-colored or rarely pale yellow, rose-tipped; leaf blades adaxially distinctly glaucous.   3b subsp. oregana

Lower Taxa


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