5. Myrica cerifera Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1024. 1753.
Southern bayberry, southern wax-myrtle
Cerophora lanceolata Rafinesque; Cerothamnus arborescens (Castiglioni) Tidestrom; C. ceriferus (Linnaeus) Small; C. pumilus (Michaux) Small; Morella cerifera (Linnaeus) Small; Myrica cerifera var. angustifolia Aiton; M. cerifera var. arborescens Castiglioni; M. cerifera var. dubia A. Chevalier; M. cerifera var. pumila Michaux; M. pumila (Michaux) Small; M. pusilla Rafinesque
Shrubs or small trees , evergreen, often forming large, rhizomatous colonies of much-branched specimens, to 14 m. Branchlets reddish brown, densely gland-dotted when young, otherwise glabrous to densely pilose, eventually glabrate; glands yellow. Leaf blade aromatic when crushed, linear-oblanceolate to obovate, (1.1-)2-10.5(-13.3) × 0.4-3.3 cm, leathery, base cuneate to attenuate, margins entire or coarsely serrate beyond middle, apex acute to slightly rounded; surfaces abaxially pale yellow-green, glabrous except for pilose midrib, adaxially dark green, glabrous to pilose, both surfaces densely glandular; glands yellow to orange. Inflorescences: staminate 0.4-1.9 cm; pistillate 0.3-1.5 cm. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on different plants. Staminate flowers: bract of flower shorter than staminal column, margins opaque, densely ciliate, abaxially densely gland-dotted; stamens mostly 3-4. Pistillate flowers: bracteoles persistent in fruit, 4, not accrescent or adnate to fruit wall, margins ciliate, abaxially densely gland-dotted; ovary glandular, especially at apex near style base. Fruits globose-ellipsoid, 2-3.5(-4) mm; fruit wall glabrous or sparsely glandular when young, obscured by enlarged protuberances and thick coat of blue-white wax.
Flowering mid winter-spring, fruiting summer-fall. Bogs, edges of marshes, ponds, creeks, and swamps, pine forests, mixed deciduous forests, pine barrens, coastal sand dunes, open fields, sandy hillsides; 0-450 m; Ala., Ark., Del., Fla., Ga., La., Md., Miss., N.J., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tex., Va.; Mexico; West Indies; Bermuda; Central America.
Myrica cerifera is an extremely variable species with respect to habitat and corresponding habit/vegetative morphology. In general, plants that occupy dry, sandy (more xeric) areas tend to be strongly rhizomatous, colonial, and smaller in stature, and to possess smaller leaves (commonly recognized as M . cerifera var. pumila ). In contrast, plants of more mesic areas are seldom rhizomatous, not colonial, and often large and treelike, and they have larger leaves. These "extremes pass insensibly into each other" (J. W. Thieret 1966). I agree with Thieret's contention that these differences do not constitute reliable criteria upon which one should base taxonomic distinctions. Until it can be determined with certainty whether these differences are due to genetics or environment, the question will remain open. I have chosen the conservative route.
Myrica cerifera has often been confused with M . pensylvanica and with M . heterophylla . It is distinguished from M . pensylvanica on the basis of gland density on the leaves, the presence of glands versus hirsute pubescence on the fruit wall and protuberances (especially visible on young fruits), and less reliably on the size of the fruit (2-3.5 versus 3.5-5.5 mm). Myrica cerifera is distinguished from M . heterophylla by the density of the glands on the leaves and the glandular versus glabrous (usually) fruit wall.
Native Americans used a decoction of the leaves and stems of Myrica cerifera to treat fevers; and roots, to treat inflamed tonsils and stomachaches, and as a stimulant (D. E. Moerman 1986).