7. Smilax havanensis Jacquin, Enum. Syst. Pl. 33. 1760.
Smilax coriacea Sprengel; S. coriacea var. ilicifolia O. E. Schulz; S. guianensis Vitman var. subarmata O. E. Schulz; S. havanensis var. portoricensis A. de Candolle; S. ilicifolia Desvaux ex Hamilton; S. subarmata (O. E. Schulz) O. E. Schulz
Vines; rhizomes short. Stems perennial, climbing, branching, ± woody, glabrous, ± unarmed, to stunted, rigid (shrublike), densely armed; prickles pale green with dark tips, recurved, flattened, stout, 1–2 mm; stems (especially in nodal areas) with small, waxlike nodules often connected by arachnoid filaments. Leaves evergreen, ± evenly disposed; petiole 0.5–2 cm; blade variable, dull green, thick, narrowly oblong-elliptic, elliptic-ovate, or oval, conspicuously veined, 2–19 × 0.6–13.5 cm, not glaucous or pubescent, base pointed to rounded to narrowly cordate, margins spinose, or sometimes entire with thick edges, apex abruptly mucronate, spiny, or emarginate. Umbels few to numerous, axillary to leaves, few to numerous-flowered, ± open; peduncle to 1.6 cm, ± equaling or shorter than subtending petiole. Flowers: perianth green; tepals ca. 1.5 mm; ovule 1 per locule. Berries purplish black, globose, sometimes pointed, ca. 6 mm, not glaucous.
Flowering year-round. Pinelands and hammocks; 0--100 m; Fla.; West Indies.
Smilax havanensis is unusually variable in habit, leaf shape, amount of spines (particularly on the leaf margins), and shape of fruit.