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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 6 | Violaceae | Viola

27. Viola japonica Langsdorff ex Gingins in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 1: 295. 1824.

Japanese violet Japanese violet

Plants perennial, acaulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–10 cm; rhizome thick, fleshy. Leaves basal, ca. 5, ascending to erect; stipules ± oblong, 2-fid, proximal margins entire, distal ± serrate, apex acuminate; petiole narrowly winged distally, 1–14 cm, usually glabrous; blade unlobed, broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, 3–8 × 3–5.5 cm, base cordate, margins crenate, usually eciliate, apex acute or ± obtuse, surfaces sparsely puberulent. Peduncles 3–6 cm, glabrous or pubescent, bracteoles near middle. Flowers: sepals broadly lanceolate, margins eciliate, auricles 6–8 mm; petals light violet or whitish violet on both surfaces, lowest 3 occasionally white basally, often dark violet-veined, lateral 2 sparsely bearded or beardless, lowest 17–20 mm, spur pale to dark violet, elongated, 5–10 mm; style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers present. Capsules ellipsoid, 8–10 mm, glabrous. Seeds unknown. 2n = 48.Flowering Apr–Jun. Gardens and ruderal areas; 10–50 m; introduced; Mass.; Asia (China, Japan, Korea).

A. Haines (2011) reported that Viola japonica occurs in Massachusetts. He noted that reports of V. chinensis D. Don in New England were misidentified and are V. japonica. Reports of V. patrinii in District of Columbia, Maryland, and New York may also be V. japonica.


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