4. Verbesina encelioides (Cavanilles) Bentham & Hooker f. ex A. Gray in W. H. Brewer et al., Bot. California. 1: 350. 1876.
Ximenesia encelioides Cavanilles, Icon. 2: 60, plate 178. 1793 (as enceliodes); Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata (B. L. Robinson & Greenman) J. R. Coleman; V. encelioides var. exauriculata B. L. Robinson & Greenman
Plants 10–50(–120+) cm (annuals, internodes not winged). Leaves all or mostly alternate (proximal usually opposite); blades deltate-ovate or rhombic to lanceolate, 3–8(–12+) × 2–4(–6+) cm, bases broadly cuneate to ± truncate, margins coarsely toothed to subentire, apices acute to attenuate, faces strigoso-scabrellous to sericeous. Heads usually borne singly, sometimes 2–3+ in loose, cymiform or corymbiform arrays. Involucres ± hemispheric to saucerlike, 10–20+ mm diam. Phyllaries 12–18+ in 1–2 series, ± erect to spreading, lance-ovate or lance-linear to linear, 6–8+ mm. Ray florets (8–)12–15+; laminae 8–10(–20+) mm. Disc florets 80–150+; corollas yellow. Cypselae dark brown to blackish, narrowly obovate, 3.5–5+ mm, faces ± strigillose; pappi 0.5–1(–2) mm (0 on ray cypselae). 2n = 34.
Flowering Aug–Oct. Swales, disturbed sites; 10–2500 m; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Fla., Ga., Ill., Iowa, Kans., La., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Wyo.; Mexico; West Indies; South America; introduced in Asia, Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Australia.
Native distribution of Verbesina encelioides in the flora area is uncertain. Plants of Verbesina encelioides from ca. 100°W (e.g., c Texas) and eastward usually have auriculate petiole bases and have been called var. encelioides; plants from the west usually lack auricles and have been called var. exauriculata.