43. Viola pedata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 933. 1753.
Plants perennial, acaulescent, not stoloniferous, 5–30 cm; rhizome thick, fleshy. Leaves basal, 4–10, ascending to erect, deeply divided; stipules linear-lanceolate, margins entire, lacerate, or shallowly divided, apex acute; petiole 2–12 cm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent; blade 3–9(–10)-lobed, lobes similar in width and shape, spatulate, lanceolate ± linear, deltate, or ovate, 1–4 × 1–4 cm, base attenuate or broadly cordate to cuneate, margins entire, ciliate or eciliate, apex rounded to usually acute, surfaces usually glabrous, sometimes pubescent on abaxial veins. Peduncles 5–12 cm, glabrous or pubescent. Flowers: sepals lanceolate, margins mostly ciliate, at least proximally, auricles 1–2 mm; petals uniformly light to dark blue-violet on both surfaces or upper 2 darker adaxially, sometimes white, upper and lateral 2 often darker basally, lowest, seldom others, dark violet-veined, all beardless, lowest white basally, 12–24 mm, spur white, gibbous, 2–3 mm; style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers absent. Capsules ellipsoid, 6–10 mm, glabrous. Seeds beige, mottled to brown, 1.4–3 mm. 2n = 56.
Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): e North America.