4. Hybanthus parviflorus (Linnaeus f.) Baillon, Traité Bot. Méd. Phan. 2: 841. 1884.
Viola parviflora Linnaeus f., Suppl. Pl., 396. 1782
Plants herbs, annual (or perennial), 30–50 cm, from taproot. Stems 1 or several-clustered, erect, suberect, or prostrate, sometimes much-branched from caudex, usually hairy. Leaves alternate or opposite, frequently opposite only proximally, petiolate; stipules narrowly lanceolate, 1–2 mm, sparsely ciliate to ciliate; petiole 0.5–4 mm; blade usually elliptic, lanceolate, or oblong, sometimes oblanceolate, widely elliptic, ovate, or obovate, 0.3–3 × 0.2–1.5 cm, base acute, attenuate, rounded, or obtuse, margins serrate, sparsely ciliate to ciliate, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or pubescent or puberulent on midrib. Inflorescences usually 1-flowered, sometimes in poorly defined racemes; peduncle erect at anthesis, usually pendant in fruit, 7–24 mm, puberulent; bracteoles absent. Flowers: sepals appressed to corolla, narrowly lanceolate, rarely ovate to suborbiculate, subfalcate, margins sparsely ciliate to ciliate, apex acuminate, rarely round or obtuse; petals: upper white, oblong, 0.5 mm, margins ciliate, apex rounded, glabrous; laterals white, oblong to lanceolate, falcate, 1.5–1.8 mm, apex rounded or acute, glabrous; lowest white, usually with purplish veins, with basal purple patch, 1.5–3.7 mm, claw 1–1.5 × 0.5–0.7 mm (rarely absent), distal limb ± deltate, ± flat at anthesis, 1.2–1.4 mm wide, margins ciliate, apex retuse, glabrous or adaxial surface sparsely pubescent basally; presence of cleistogamous flowers not determined. Capsules ovoid to globose, 3–4 mm. Seeds (3–)6–9, black, ovoid, 1.5–1.7 mm. 2n = 12, 24.
Flowering Apr–Oct. Disturbed or grassy areas; 1–3 m; introduced; Ga., N.J.; South America.
Hybanthus parviflorus was first collected in the flora area in 1880 (identified as Calceolaria glutinosa) from ship ballast at Communipaw Ferry, New Jersey, and again from ballast (as Ionidium glutinosum) at Kaighn Point, Camden, New Jersey, in 1885 (B. E. Wofford et al. 2004). It is unknown whether a 1998 collection from Fort Pulaski, Georgia, is a recent introduction (Wofford et al.).