3. Omalotheca sylvatica (Linnaeus) Schultz-Bipontinus & F. W. Schultz in F. W. Schultz, Arch. Fl. 311. 1861.
Woodland Arctic-cudweed, gnaphale des bois
Gnaphalium sylvaticum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 856. 1753
Plants 10–70 cm. Leaves basal and cauline; blades 1-nerved, linear to narrowly oblanceolate or lanceolate, 2–8 cm × 2–10 mm, distal cauline smaller, linear, faces bicolor, abaxial gray, silvery sericeous, adaxial green, glabrescent. Heads (20–90) in loose, spiciform (leafy-bracteate, interrupted) arrays (4–35 cm, occupying 1/3–5/6 plant heights, simple or branched at bases, primary axes mostly visible). Involucres campanulo-turbinate, 5–6.5 mm. Phyllaries some or all with conspicuous dark brown spot distal to middle. Cypselae cylindric to fusiform, minutely strigose; pappus bristles basally connate, falling together. 2n = 56.
Flowering Jul–Sep(–Oct). Open woods, boggy woods, rocky slopes, clearings, fields, borders of woods, roadsides, muddy banks, disturbed sites; 10–500 m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Maine, Mich., N.H., N.Y., Pa., Vt., Wis.; Europe; Asia (Caucasus, Iran, Siberia).
The circumboreal Omalotheca sylvatica may have been introduced from Eurasia (Frére Marie-Victorin 1995). Omalotheca alpigena (K. Koch) Holub and O. caucasica (Sommier & Levier) S. K. Cherepanov were treated as synonyms of O. sylvatica by A. J. C. Grierson (1975); they have been recognized as distinct species in other treatments.