31. Solidago ludoviciana (A. Gray) Small, Fl. S.E. U.S. 1199, 1339. 1903.
Solidago boottii Hooker var. ludoviciana A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 17: 195. 1882; S. arguta Aiton var. strigosa (Small) Steyermark; S. strigosa Small
Plants 50–90(–150) cm; rhizomes deep-seated, main, short, or caudices and slender bracteate rhizomes. Stems 1 or in clones 2–5+, proximally glabrous or short-strigose in arrays. Leaves: basal and proximal cauline tapering to long, winged petioles (to 100 mm), blades elliptic to obovate or ovate, 80–200 (including petioles) × 25–80 mm, bases broadly to narrowly attenuate, margins serrate, apices acute or obtuse, faces glabrous or sparsely scabroso-strigose; mid to distal cauline sessile, blades linear-elliptic to elliptic-oblanceolate, 20–60 × 4–20 mm, much reduced distally and usually ascending to appressed, bases tapered, margins entire to sparsely shallowly serrate, ciliate, apices acute. Heads 50–140, secund on longer branches, less so on apical branches, in open paniculiform arrays, proximal branches ascending and bracteate, apical portions arching. Peduncles 1–4 mm short-strigose, bracteolate. Involucres campanulate, 4–5(–5.8) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, ascending, lanceolate to oblong, strongly unequal, margins finely fimbriate-ciliate distally, midnerves swollen apically, apices broadly acute to obtuse, faces glabrous. Ray florets 4–6; laminae ± 2 × 1 mm. Disc florets 5–7; corollas 4–5 mm, lobes 1–1.5 mm. Cypselae (greenish turning golden brown, obconic) 2–3 mm (ribs 4–7), short strigose, more so on distal 1 / 2 ; pappi 3–4 mm. 2n = 18, 36.
Flowering Aug–Sep(–Oct). Dry open woods, edges of woods near roads, railroad embankments; 0–200 m; Ark., La., Tex.