2. Kindbergia praelonga (Hedwig) Ochyra, Lindbergia. 8: 54. 1982.
Hypnum praelongum Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 258. 1801; Eurhynchium brittoniae Grout; E. praelongum (Hedwig) Schimper; E. praelongum var. californicum Grout; E. praelongum var. stokesii (Turner) Dixon; Kindbergia brittoniae (Grout) Ochyra
Plants medium-sized to moderately large, not conspicuously plumose, green or rarely yellow-green. Stems 3-10 cm, sympodial branching common, pinnate branches 6-10(-20) mm, often with secondary branches. Stem leaves 0.7-1.4 × (0.5-)0.7-1.2 mm; laminal cells 20-75 × 5-6 µm. Branch leaves not plicate, (0.3-)0.6-1.2 × (0.1-)0.2-0.4(-0.7) mm. Seta 1.5-2.5 cm. Spores 12-17 µm.
Soil, mesic to wet places, in or near forests; low to high elevations (0-2600 m); B.C.; Alaska, Calif., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Wash.; Mexico; Central America; South America; Europe; w Asia; n, s Africa; Atlantic Islands; Pacific Islands (New Zealand); Australia.
Two taxa have commonly been recognized within Kindbergia praelonga: Eurhynchium praelongum var. stokesii and K. brittoniae. The former is more robust than typical K. praelonga and has mostly simple branches, as with K. oregana. In contrast, K. brittoniae is a more slender plant with slightly roughened to almost smooth setae. Transitions between these extremes make it difficult to segregate either taxon (K. S. Giles 1990). Kindbergia praelonga was reported several times from eastern North America, but correctly identified collections have not been seen to date. It is most commonly confused with Sciuro-hypnum starkei or Bryhnia novae-angliae. However, S. starkei is autoicous with frequent sporophyte production; the conic operculum is the most reliable differentiating character state, although not present in all specimens. Bryhnia is distinct in its not so regular branching, usually strongly prorate laminal cells with prorae on each cell, not only on few cells as in Kindbergia.