21. Pohlia annotina (Hedwig) Lindberg, Musc. Scand. 17. 1879.
Bryum annotinum Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 183, plate 43. 1801
Plants small, green, dull. Stems0.3-3 cm. Leaves ± erect, lanceolate, 0.6-1.1 mm; margins serrulate to serrate in distal 1/3; costa subpercurrent; distal medial laminal cells rhombic to rhomboidal, 60-95 µm, walls thin. Specialized asexual reproduction usually present when sterile; axillary gemmae in dense clusters, rarely few or single on older stems, oblong, obconic, or rarely oblong-bulbiform, hyaline to pale green, rarely reddish, leaf primordia <2-5, conspicuous>, restricted to apex, peglike or rarely ± laminate with age. Sexual condition dioicous; perigonial leaves ovate; perichaetial leaves weakly differentiated, narrowly lanceolate. Seta orange-brown. Capsule inclined 95-180°, brown to stramineous, pyriform, neck 1/3 urn length; exothecial cells short-rectangular, walls sinuate; stomata superficial; annulus present; operculum convex-conic; exostome teeth yellow- brown, narrowly triangular-acute; endostome hyaline, to serrate in distal 1/3; costa basal membrane 1/2 exostome length, segments distinctly subpercurrent; distal medial laminal cells rhombic to rhomboidal, 65-95 µm, walls thin. Specialized asexual keeled, broadly perforate, cilia short to rudimentary. Spores 16-21 µm, finely roughened.
Capsules mature summer (Jun-Aug). Acid, gravelly or sandy disturbed soil, path banks, stream banks; low to high elevations; B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Ont., Que.; Alaska, Ark., Calif., Del., Ga., Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., Wis.; Europe.
Pohlia annotina is the most widespread and common gemmiferous species in eastern North America and along the Pacific coast. The plants are slender and rather dull with green to orange-green stems, and the leaves are somewhat contorted when dry. The axillary gemmae are borne in clusters and are obconic to linear-obconic, with two to five apical, peglike leaf primordia.