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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 6 | Violaceae | Viola

10a. Viola canadensis Linnaeus var. canadensis

Canada or Canada white or tall white violet, violette du Canada Canada or Canada white or tall white violet, violette du Canada

Viola canadensis var. pubens Farwell; V. canadensis var. rydbergii (Greene) House; V. canadensis var. scariosa Porter; V. geminiflora Greene; V. muriculata Greene; V. neomexicana Greene; V. rydbergii Greene

Plants solitary, 11–46 cm. Rhizomes not branched. Stems 1–2(–4). Leaves: basal: petiole 1.2–20 cm; blade ovate to ovate-reniform, 1.4–8 × 2.4–9.2 cm, base cordate, margins crenate; cauline: stipules oblong, ovate, or lanceolate, margins usually entire, apex acute, long-acuminate to cuspidate, or ± truncate; petiole 0.1–6.1(–15.2) cm; blade ovate to deltate, 2–7.1 × 0.9–6.2 cm, base cordate or truncate, margins crenate to crenulate, ciliate or eciliate. Peduncles 1–2.6(–6.1) cm, sometimes glabrous below bracteoles. Flowers: lowest petal 8–15 mm. Capsules 4–8.5 mm, sometimes minutely muricate. 2n = 24.

Flowering Apr–Oct. Riparian, coniferous or aspen forests, deciduous and mixed forests, cove hardwoods, northern hardwood forests, moist, shaded slopes, sandy, rich, or rocky soil, talus slopes, road cuts; 50–3600 m; N.B., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., Que.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Colo., Conn., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Utah, Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

H. J. Scoggan (1978–1979) stated that reports of var. canadensis from Newfoundland require confirmation.


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