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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 6 | Violaceae | Viola

51. Viola purpurea Kellogg, Pacific (San Francisco). 2 Feb., 1855: unnumb. 1855.

Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 1.5–25 cm. Stems 1–5(–7), decumbent or spreading to erect, leafy proximally and distally, ± glabrous, puberulent, canescent, or tomentose, on caudex from subligneous rhizome. Leaves basal and cauline; basal: 1–6; stipules adnate to petiole, forming 2 linear, membranous wings, wing margins entire or laciniate, each wing with lanceolate to ± deltate projection, margins entire or laciniate, apex acute to long-acuminate; petiole 1.8–14.5 cm, puberulent to tomentose; blade purplish, purple-tinted, or gray-green abaxially, gray, green, or gray-green adaxially, sometimes shiny adaxially, ovate, orbiculate, oblong, deltate, or lanceolate, 0.8–5.3 × 0.4–4.1 cm, often fleshy, base cordate, subcordate, truncate, or attenuate, oblique or not, margins usually ± crenate, serrate, dentate, or coarsely or irregularly repand-dentate, sometimes entire, usually ciliate, apex acute to obtuse or rounded, surfaces glabrous, puberulent, or tomentose; cauline similar to basal except: stipules linear, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or ± oblong to ovate, margins entire, lacerate, or laciniate, usually ciliate, apex sometimes divided into 2–3 filiform processes or obtuse; petiole 0.3–19.7 cm, glabrous or puberulent; blade ovate, oblong, elliptic, deltate, or lanceolate, 0.9–5.2 × 0.2–2.9 cm, length 0.8–7.1 times width, margins crenate, serrate, dentate, repand-denticulate, undulate-denticulate, sinuate, undulate, or entire, abaxial surface puberulent, canescent, or tomentose, adaxial surface glabrous, sparsely pubescent, puberulent, canescent, or tomentose. Capsules ovoid to ± spherical, 4–7 mm, puberulent. Seeds light to dark brown or mottled gray and brown, 2–3.1 mm. 2n = 12.

Varieties 7 (7 in the flora): w North America, nw Mexico.

Varieties of Viola purpurea are variable and intergrade. All are found in California; six occur in other western states, one in Mexico, and one in British Columbia. Mature plants are needed for determination.

1 Basal and cauline leaf blade surfaces tomentose   51b Viola purpurea var. aurea
+ Basal and cauline leaf blade surfaces ± glabrous, canescent, or puberulent   (2)
2 (1) Stems mostly buried, not much elongated by end of season; plants 1.5–9(–12) cm   (3)
+ Stems usually not buried, usually elongated by end of season; plants 3–25 cm   (4)
3 (2) Cauline leaf margins usually entire, sometimes sinuate; basal leaf margins ± crenate to irregularly repand-dentate or entire.   51d Viola purpurea var. integrifolia
+ Cauline leaf margins usually coarsely crenate or dentate, sometimes ± serrate or ± entire; basal leaf margins coarse-serrate or irregularly dentate or crenate with 2–4 rounded teeth per side   51g Viola purpurea var. venosa
4 (2) Basal leaf base cordate or truncate   51c Viola purpurea var. dimorpha
+ Basal leaf base usually attenuate, sometimes subcordate or truncate   (5)
5 (4) Cauline leaf blade length 3.2–7.1 times width, margins usually undulate-denticulate, sometimes entire   51e Viola purpurea var. mesophyta
+ Cauline leaf blade length 1–3 times width, margins with 3–4(–5) pointed or rounded teeth per side or crenate-serrate   (6)
6 (5) Basal leaf blade margins irregularly crenate, without pointed or rounded teeth; adaxial surface often shiny.   51a Viola purpurea var. purpurea
+ Basal leaf blade margins dentate-serrate with 4–5(–6) pointed or rounded teeth per side; adaxial surface not shiny.   51f Viola purpurea var. mohavensis

Lower Taxa


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