11. Euphorbia innocua L. C. Wheeler, Contr. Gray Herb. 127: 62, plate 3, fig. D. 1939.
Velvet spurge Velvet spurge
Herbs, perennial, with moderately to strongly thickened rootstock. Stems prostrate to decumbent or ascending, branched (often near base), 7–45 cm, densely pilose. Leaves alternate; stipules to 0.1 mm; petiole (0.7–)1.1–3.5 mm, pilose; blade ovate to orbiculate, 4.6–17(–25) × 4.5–15(–19) mm, base cordate, margins entire, apex rounded to obtuse, surfaces densely pilose; venation obscure, usually only midvein conspicuous. Cyathia in terminal dichasia (often weakly defined); peduncle 1–2.7 mm, densely pilose. Involucre campanulate, 1–1.3 × 1.2–1.4 mm, pilose; glands 4, yellow to green, elliptic, 0.2–0.3 × 0.5–0.6 mm; appendages green, elliptic, 0.4–0.5 × 0.5–0.9 mm, entire or crenulate, ciliate. Staminate flowers 5–10. Pistillate flowers: ovary pilose; styles 0.4–0.7 mm, 2-fid 1/2 length. Capsules depressed-ovoid, 2–2.5 × 2.7–3.3 mm, pilose; columella 1.6–2.1 mm. Seeds gray to brown, ovoid, 1.5–1.7 × 1.2–1.3 mm, rugose with whitish ridges; caruncle absent.
Flowering and fruiting early winter–late spring. Sandy soils or dunes, grasslands, pastures; 0–20 m; Tex.
Euphorbia innocua is restricted to south coastal Texas in Aransas, Calhoun, Kenedy, Kleberg, Nueces, Refugio, San Patricio, and Willacy counties.