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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Ranunculaceae

2a.1. Ranunculus Sect. Echinella de Candolle, Prodr. 1: 41. 1824.

Plants pubescent or glabrous. Stems erect or decumbent, not bulbous-based, without bulbils. Roots basal, never tuberous. Leaves basal and cauline or sometimes only cauline; basal and lower cauline leaves similar, petiolate, blades undivided, lobed, or compound, segments lobed or unlobed, margins entire or dentate. Inflorescences 2-16-flowered cymes (cymes sometimes sympodial, then flowers seemingly inserted opposite bracts). Flowers pedicellate (sessile in R . platensis ); sepals deciduous soon after anthesis, 5 (3 in R . platensis ); petals yellow (sometimes absent in R . hebecarpus ); nectary scale attached basally, free from petal for at least 1/2 its length, forming flap covering nectary, glabrous, free margin entire; style present. Fruits achenes, 1-locular; achene body discoid, strongly flattened, 3-7 times as wide as thick, not prolonged beyond seed; wall thick, spiny, tuberculate, or papillose (sometimes smooth in R . sardous ); margin low or high, broad or narrow ridge; beak much shorter than achene body.

Species ca. 15 (8 in the flora): worldwide except lowland tropics.

1 Petals 1–2 mm; achenes finely papillose, papillae terminating in slender hooked hairs or spines; native or introduced.   (2)
+ Petals 4–10 mm; achenes coarsely papillose, tuberculate, or spinose, rarely smooth; introduced weeds.   (4)
2 (1) Flowers sessile; sepals 3.   27 Ranunculus platensis
+ Flowers pedicellate; sepals 5.   (3)
3 (2) Achenes ornamented on faces and margin, with lanceolate beaks; native of Pacific Slope.   25 Ranunculus hebecarpus
+ Achenes ornamented on faces but not margin, with deltate beaks; introduced weed, widespread in North America.   26 Ranunculus parviflorus
4 (1) Sepals spreading; achenes 5–9 in single whorl, the faces and margin long-spinose.   24 Ranunculus arvensis
+ Sepals reflexed; achenes 10–60 in ovoid or globose heads, the faces papillose to spinose or rarely smooth, margin smooth.   (5)
5 (4) Basal leaves compound; achene beak 0.3–0.7 mm.   (6)
+ Basal leaves simple; achene beak 1–2.5 mm.   (7)
6 (5) Achene faces sparsely papillate or sometimes smooth; petals more than 5 mm.   20 Ranunculus sardous
+ Achene faces densely tuberculate; petals less than 5mm.   21 Ranunculus trilobus
7 (5) Achene faces but not margin covered with long spines; beaks 2– 2.5 mm.   22 Ranunculus muricatus
+ Achene faces but not margin covered with high sharp tubercles or low spines; beaks ca. 1 mm.   23 Ranunculus marginatus


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