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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Ranunculaceae

2a.3. Ranunculus Sect. Epirotes (Prantl) L. D. Benson, Amer. J. Bot. 23: 169. 1936.

Ranunculus sect. Marsypadenium Prantl e. Epirotes Prantl, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 9: 266. 1888

Plants glabrous or sometimes pilose or pubescent. Stems erect, not bulbous-based, without bulbils. Roots basal, sometimes tuberous. Leaves basal and cauline, simple or compound; basal leaves petiolate, blades variously divided, unlobed to deeply parted, compound, or filiform-dissected, segments undivided or again lobed or parted, margins entire or crenate, never serrate; cauline leaves sessile to nearly sessile or sometimes with much shorter petioles than basal leaves, blades lobed to compound or dissected (rarely unlobed in R . macauleyi and R . glaberrimus ). Inflorescences 1-50-flowered cymes. Flowers pedicellate; sepals deciduous soon after anthesis, 5; petals yellow (rarely absent in R . pedatifidus ); nectary scale joined with petal on 3 sides, forming pocket enclosing nectary (sometimes with apex free, forming flap shorter than pocket), glabrous or setose, free margin entire or fringed; style present. Fruits achenes, 1-locular; achene body thick-lenticular or asymmetrically thick-lenticular to compressed-globose, 1.2-2 times as wide as thick, not prolonged beyond seed; wall thick, smooth; margin low narrow ridge, often inconspicuous; beak much shorter than achene body.

Species ca. 70 (22 in the flora): worldwide except lowland tropics.

1 Abaxial surface of sepals with dense brown pubescence.   (2)
+ Abaxial surface of sepals glabrous or with colorless hairs.   (4)
2 (1) Basal leaf blades narrowly elliptic to lanceolate or oblanceolate; s Rocky Mountains.   30 Ranunculus macauleyi
+ Basal leaf blades orbiculate to reniform; Canadian Rocky Mountains and Arctic.   (3)
3 (2) Receptacle brown-pilose; basal leaf blades usually shallowly lobed, or unlobed with crenate margins.   29 Ranunculus sulphureus
+ Receptacle glabrous; basal leaf blades 3-parted.   28 Ranunculus nivalis
4 (1) Basal leaves deciduous before anthesis; nectary scale ciliate, petals 2–3 times as long as wide.   39a var. arizonicus
+ Basal leaves persistent; nectary scale glabrous, (glabrous or ± pilose in R. cardiophyllus and R. glaberrimus, which have petals 1–1.5 times as long as wide).   (5)
5 (4) Some or all basal leaf blades unlobed.   (6)
+ All basal leaf blades lobed or parted.   (14)
6 (5) Basal leaf margins entire or with 3 broad shallow rounded teeth; heads of achenes globose, 6–20mm wide.   49 Ranunculus glaberrimus
+ Basal leaf margins either crenate to crenate-lobulate, with more than 5 rounded teeth, or innermost teeth lobed or divided; heads of achenes usually ovoid to cylindric (sometimes globose and 3–8 mm wide).   (7)
7 (6) Petals 1–3.5 mm.   (8)
+ Petals 4–18 mm.   (10)
8 (7) Stems villous, sometimes sparsely so; receptacle glabrous; base of some roots ± swollen and tuberous, usually 1–2 mm thick; leaf base usually obtuse or truncate.   44 Ranunculus micranthus
+ Stems glabrous; receptacle pilose, sometimes sparsely so; base of roots never much swollen, 0.2–1.5 mm thick; leaf base ± cordate.   (9)
9 (8) Sepals hispid; achene beak 0.6–1 mm.   46 Ranunculus allegheniensis
+ Sepals glabrous; achene beak 0.1–0.2 mm.   45 Ranunculus abortivus
10 (7) Leaf blades wider than long; e of Great Plains, not in Great Lakes area.   (11)
+ Leaf blades at least as long as wide; Great Lakes area and Great Plains w to Great Basin.   (12)
11 (10) Pedicels glabrous (see also R. escholtzii with lobed leaves); se United States.   43a var. harveyi
+ Pedicels pubescent, sometimes sparsely so; e Canada.   36 Ranunculus allenii
12 (10) Sepals 5–8 × 3–7 mm; nectary scale ciliate, sometimes glabrous; leaf base cordate to broadly obtuse.   40 Ranunculus cardiophyllus
+ Sepals 3–6× 1.5–3mm; nectary scale glabrous; leaf base obtuse or acute to rounded.   (13)
13 (12) Basal leaf blades ovate, obovate, or orbiculate; heads of achenes cylindric, 7–17 mm; achene beak 0.4–2 mm; Rocky Mountains, Great Basin, and Black Hills.   37 Ranunculus inamoenus
+ Basal leaf blades ovate to rhombic; heads of achenes depressed-globose, 4–6 mm; achene beak 0.2– 0.3 mm; n Great Plains and eastward.   38 Ranunculus rhomboideus
14 (5) Basal leaf blades dissected into linear segments.   (15)
+ Basal leaves at most 1×-divided, segments not linear.   (16)
15 (14) Roots slender, 0.8–1.4 mm thick; achene beak 1.2–1.7 mm.   32 Ranunculus adoneus
+ Roots 2–3 mm thick; achene beak 0.8–1.5 mm.   48 Ranunculus triternatus
16 (14) Some roots clavate and tuberous, 2.5–5 mm thick; basal leaf blades deeply divided into 3 oblanceolate segments.   47 Ranunculus jovis
+ Roots not clavate or tuberous, 0.1–1.6 mm thick; leaves various but not as above.   (17)
17 (16) Petals 7–15 mm.   (18)
+ Petals 1–8 mm.   (20)
18 (17) Pedicels glabrous.   31 Ranunculus eschscholtzii
+ Pedicels pubescent.   (19)
19 (18) Heads of achenes globose to short-ovoid; basal leaves 3-parted with segments again lobed or parted, margins toothed; Greenland.   42 Ranunculus auricomus
+ Heads of achenes cylindric; basal leaves pedately (5–)7(–9)-parted or -divided, segments sometimes again lobed, margins never toothed; throughout n North America.   41a var. affinis
20 (17) Flowering stems 0.6–3.5 cm (sometimes longer in fruit); petals 1–3.5 mm.   34 Ranunculus pygmaeus
+ Flowering stems (1–)4–15(–27) cm; petals 3–8 mm.   (21)
21 (20) Petals 6–16 mm; beak of achene straight, 0.6–1.8 mm; pedicels glabrous.   31 Ranunculus eschscholtzii
+ Petals 4–8 mm; beak of achene straight or curved, 0.3–0.7 mm; pedicels glabrous or pilose.   (22)
22 (21) Base of basal leaves obtuse; petals 5–8 mm; arctic Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.   35 Ranunculus sabinei
+ Base of basal leaves nearly cordate to truncate; petals 4–5 mm; Alaska, Yukon, and Rocky Mountains.   33 Ranunculus gelidus

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