169. Toiyabea R. P. Roberts, Urbatsch & Neubig, Sida. 21: 1652. 2005.
Alpine serpentweed [For Toiyabe Mountain Range, Nevada; traditional Shoshone, black mountains]
Lowell E. Urbatsch, Roland P. Roberts, Kurt M. Neubig
Perennials, 10–20 cm, herbage densely stipitate-glandular (with caudices or short rhizomes, bases woody). Stems (1–10) erect, usually simple. Leaves basal and cauline; alternate; usually sessile, proximal petiolate; blades with prominent midnerves plus 1–2 pairs of smaller, ± parallel, collateral nerves often evident, spatulate to obovate or oblanceolate, margins (distal 1 / 2 ) coarsely dentate to serrate, faces often gland-dotted. Heads discoid, usually borne singly, sometimes (2–5) in elongate or flat-topped cymiform arrays. Involucres campanulate to hemispheric, (10–12 ×) 7–10 mm. Phyllaries 21–28 in 2–3 series, 3-nerved (flat), subequal, foliaceous, margins ciliolate, faces stipitate-glandular; outer slightly spreading, broadly ovate (apices obtuse, mucronulate), inner lanceolate-spatulate (apices acuminate-cuspidate). Receptacles convex, pitted, epaleate. Ray florets 0. Disc florets (29–)35–50(–55), bisexual, fertile; corollas golden yellow, tubes shorter than narrowly funnelform throats, lobes 5, spreading to recurved, lanceolate; style-branch appendages narrowly lanceolate. Cypselae (tan to reddish brown) cylindric to fusiform, sometimes slightly compressed, 4–5-nerved, faces hairy; pappi persistent, of ca. 25, tan, fine, barbellate, apically attenuate bristles in 1 series. x = 9.
Species 1: w United States.
Toiyabea was originally described as Haplopappus and later transferred to Tonestus. Investigations based on DNA sequence data (R. P. Roberts 2002; Roberts and L. E. Urbatsch 2004) failed to support the monophyly of Tonestus in the sense of G. L. Nesom and D. R. Morgan (1990). Evolutionary affinities of Toiyabea appear to be with Petradoria. Close affinity of Toiyabea alpina to Tonestus eximius and Lorandersonia peirsonii suggested by morphology is not supported thus far by sequence data.