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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 9 | Rosaceae

48. AMYGDALUS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 472. 1753.

桃属 tao shu

Lu Lingdi (Lu Ling-ti); Bruce Bartholomew

Persica Miller.

Trees or shrubs, deciduous. Branches unarmed or spiny. Axillary winter buds (2 or)3, lateral ones flower buds, central one a leaf bud; terminal winter buds present. Stipules present. Leaves simple, alternate, sometimes fascicled on short branchlets, conduplicate when young; petiole usually with 2 nectaries or sometimes nectaries at base of leaf blade margin; leaf blade margin often serrate. Inflorescences borne on axillary short branches, 1(or 2)-flowered. Flowers bisexual, regular, opening before or rarely with leaves. Pedicel nearly absent or short, rarely long. Hypanthium caducous in fruit. Sepals 5, imbricate. Petals 5, pink or white, inserted on rim of hypanthium, imbricate. Stamens 15 to many, inserted with petals; filaments filiform, free. Ovary superior, hairy, 1-loculed; ovules 2, collateral, pendulous. Style terminal, elongated. Fruit a drupe, hairy, glabrous in some cultivated Amygdalus persica, with a conspicuous longitudinal groove; mesocarp fleshy and not splitting or dry and splitting when ripe; endocarp hard, 2-valved, globose or ellipsoid, usually compressed, surface furrowed, pitted, rugose, or smooth.

About 40 species; C, E, and SW Asia, S Europe; 11 species (four endemic, one introduced) in China.

Many species and cultivars are grown for their edible fruit or as garden ornamentals, and a few species are also grown for their edible seeds.

1 Mesocarp fleshy or rarely dry, not splitting when ripe.   (2)
+ Mesocarp dry, splitting when ripe.   (6)
2 (1) Endocarp smooth, only with shallow furrows, without pits.   (3)
+ Endocarp deeply furrowed and pitted.   (4)
3 (2) Sepals outside pubescent or rarely subglabrous; endocarp subglobose, longitudinally and transversely shallowly furrowed, apex obtuse.   10 A. kansuensis
+ Sepals outside glabrous; endocarp compressed ovoid-globose, inconspicuously and longitudinally sparsely shallowly furrowed only on dorsal and ventral sides, apex acute.   11 A. mira
4 (2) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous; calyx outside glabrous; mesocarp thin and dry; endocarp usually not laterally compressed, apex obtuse.   9 A. davidiana
+ Leaf blade abaxially sparsely pubescent in vein axils, rarely glabrous; calyx outside pubescent; mesocarp thick and succulent; endocarp laterally compressed, apex acuminate.   (5)
5 (4) Endocarp irregularly longitudinally and transversely furrowed and pitted; leaf blade secondary veins anastomosing at margin.   7 A. persica
+ Endocarp longitudinally furrowed and very sparsely pitted; leaf blade secondary veins continuing to margin.   8 A. ferganensis
6 (1) Branchlets spiny.   (7)
+ Branchlets unarmed.   (8)
7 (6) Branchlets glabrous; leaf blade long elliptic, oblong, or obovate-oblanceolate, 1.5–4 cm, secondary veins 5–8 on either side of midvein; drupe subglobose to ovoid-globose, 1.5–2 cm in diam.   5 A. tangutica
+ Branchlets pubescent; leaf blade broadly elliptic, suborbicular, or obovate, 0.8–1.5 cm, secondary veins ca. 4 on either side of midvein; drupe broadly ovoid-globose, 1–1.2 cm in diam.   6 A. mongolica
8 (6) Leaf blade lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent when young; pedicel 2–4 mm; hypanthium cylindrical.   (9)
+ Leaf blade suborbicular, broadly elliptic, or obovate, pubescent; pedicel 4–8 mm; hypanthium broadly campanulate.   (10)
9 (8) Trees or shrubs, (2–)3–6(–8) m tall; petiole 1–2(–3) cm; leaf blade lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, slightly pilose when young, glabrescent; drupe obliquely ovoid to oblong-ovoid; endocarp pitted and with or without shallow furrows.   1 A. communis
+ Shrubs, 1–1.5 m tall; petiole 0.4–0.7 cm; leaf blade narrowly oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or lanceolate, glabrous; drupe ovoid to ovoid–globose; endocarp not pitted but only with irregular shallow reticulate furrows.   2 A. nana
10 (8) Shrubs, rarely trees, 2–3 m tall; leaf blade apically 3-lobed, margin coarsely serrate or biserrate; endocarp subglobose, surface reticulate, apex obtuse.   3 A. triloba
+ Shrubs, 1–2 m tall; leaf blade apically not lobed, margin irregularly coarsely serrate; endocarp broadly ovoid, surface smooth to slightly rugose, apex mucronulate.   4 A. pedunculata

  • List of lower taxa


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