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Crassulaceae Candolle

景天科 jing tian ke

Authors: Kunjun Fu, Hideaki Ohba & Michael G. Gilbert

Rhodiola crenulata

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs. Stems mostly fleshy. Leaves alternate, opposite, or verticillate, usually simple; stipules absent; leaf blade entire or slightly incised, rarely lobed or imparipinnate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, cymose, corymbiform, spiculate, racemose, paniculate, or sometimes reduced to a solitary flower. Flowers usually bisexual, sometimes unisexual in Rhodiola (when plants dioecious or rarely gynodioecious), actinomorphic, (3 or)4-6(-30)-merous. Sepals almost free or basally connate, persistent. Petals free or connate. Stamens as many as petals in 1 series or 2 × as many in 2 series. Nectar scales at or near base of carpels. Follicles sometimes fewer than sepals, free or basally connate, erect or spreading, membranous or leathery, 1- to many seeded. Seeds small; endosperm scanty or not developed.

About 35 genera and over 1500 species: Africa, America, Asia, Europe; 13 genera (two endemic, one introduced) and 233 species (129 endemic, one introduced) in China.

Some species of Crassulaceae are cultivated as ornamentals and/or used medicinally.

Fu Shu-hsia & Fu Kun-tsun. 1984. Crassulaceae. In: Fu Shu-hsia & Fu Kun-tsun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 34(1): 31-220.


1 Stamens in 1 series, usually as many as petals; flowers always bisexual.   (2)
+ Stamens usually in 2 series, 2 × as many as petals; flowers sometimes unisexual and male flowers without stamens.   (5)
       
2 (1) Leaves always opposite, joined to form a basal sheath; inflorescences axillary, often shorter than subtending leaf; plants not developing enlarged rootstock   1 Tillaea
+ Leaves alternate, occasionally opposite proximally; inflorescence terminal, often very large; plants sometimes developing enlarged, perennial rootstock.   (3)
       
3 (2) Inflorescence with a distinct, elongated main axis forming a raceme or thyrse much longer than broad; carpels narrowed at base, free; basal leaves often densely hairy   4 Kungia
+ Inflorescence cymose with no distinct main axis, often broader than long; carpels broad at base, often ± connate; basal leaves often glabrous.   (4)
       
4 (3) Plants with conspicuous basal leaf rosettes; corolla campanulate, petals initially erect then spreading above middle, ± S-shaped in longitudinal section   8 Sinocrassula
+ Plants without basal leaf rosettes, often ephemeral; petals rotate   12 Sedum
       
5 (1) Flowers 4-merous and with prominent, persistent corolla tube completely enclosing follicles; leaves opposite.   (6)
+ Flowers 5- or 6(-12)-merous, rarely 3- or 4-merous (Rhodiola) and then petals free or joined at base only and not enclosing follicles; leaves alternate, opposite, or in a rosette.   (7)
       
6 (5) Filaments inserted basally on corolla tube; flowers usually pendulous   2 Bryophyllum
+ Filaments inserted near or above middle of corolla tube; flowers erect   3 Kalanchoe
       
7 (5) Carpels stipitate to substipitate or basally constricted or conspicuously attenuate, free.   (8)
+ Carpels sessile, base not constricted (slightly attenuate in some Rhodiola species) and usually connate (free in Sedum chuhsingense, S. semilunatum, and sometimes in S. przewalskii).   (9)
       
8 (7) Plants perennial, usually with several to many flowering stems; basal leaves not in a conspicuous rosette; inflorescence formed from a terminal group of cymes, usually broader than long, sometimes with aditional cymes in axils of distal leaves   6 Hylotelephium
+ Plants monocarpic, with a single flowering stem; basal leaves in a somewhat conspicuous rosette, dying when plant flowers; inflorescence with an elongated main axis and numerous lateral cymules, sometimes a true raceme with cymules reduced to single flowers   5 Orostachys
       
9 (7) Stems dimorphic with usually very stout caudex or rhizome, usually with brown or blackish, membranous, scalelike leaves, sharply differentiated from much more slender, erect or ascending, leafy flowering stems.   (10)
+ Stems not sharply dimorphic, proximally with well developed leaves, rarely plants stoloniferous.   (11)
       
10 (9) Flowers bisexual; petals basally connate   7 Pseudosedum
+ Flowers unisexual or bisexual; petals free or nearly so   13 Rhodiola
       
11 (9) Leaf rosette absent at anthesis; inflorescence terminal.   (12)
+ Leaf rosette conspicuous at anthesis; inflorescence axillary.   (13)
       
12 (11) Leaves flattened, margin serrate or crenate; seed testa longitudinally costate or subsmooth   11 Phedimus
+ Leaves terete or semiterete in cross section, margin entire (4-8-dentate in Sedum rosthornianum and remotely dentate in S. engleri var. dentatum); seed testa reticulate or papillate-reticulate   12 Sedum
       
13 (11) Petals yellow; basal leaf rosette almost as wide as inflorescences are long; plants glabrous throughout   10 Ohbaea
+ Petals white, pink, and/or red, (rarely pale yellow outside China); plants hairy or glabrous.   (14)
       
14 (13) Plants glandular hairy or, if glabrous, flowers 6-8-merous; petals connate at base   9 Rosularia
+ Plants glabrous; flowers (3-)5-merous; petals free or almost so   13 Rhodiola

  • List of lower taxa


     

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