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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 23 | Arecaceae

14. Arenga Labillardière, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris. 2: 162. 1800.

桄榔属 guang lang shu

Blancoa Blume (1843), not Lindley (1840); Didymosperma H. Wendland & Drude; Gomutus Corrêa; Saguerus Steck.

Understory shrubs to large trees. Stems clustered, sometimes spreading by stolons, less often solitary, usually covered with persistent, fibrous leaf bases. Leaves 5-30, pinnate, seldom undivided; leaf sheaths open, fibrous, commonly persisting on stems; petioles usually covered with distinctive scales; pinnae linear to rhomboid, sometimes lobed on margins, always jagged at apices, bases sometimes with an ear-shaped projection overlapping rachis; pinnae regularly or irregularly arranged, basal few borne in clusters, silvery gray abaxially. Plants usually semelparous; flowering proceeding from top of stem downward (basipetal), rarely in opposite direction (acropetal). Inflorescences branched to 2 orders, rarely spicate, borne among leaves, usually unisexual by suppression of either female or male flowers, solitary or rarely several at a node, covered with several persistent bracts, female inflorescences commonly produced first at apex of stem, and male ones later, below; rachillae 1-100 or more; flowers borne in triads with a central female flower and 2 lateral male flowers. Fruits red, yellowish, or purplish, large, ellipsoid, globose, ovoid, or oblong, 1-3-seeded; mesocarp with irritant crystals of calcium oxalate; endosperm homogeneous; germination remote; eophylls undivided or bifid with jagged margins.

Twenty-one species: from India through SE Asia reaching to New Guinea and Australia; six species (two endemic, one introduced) in China.

1 Pinnae fewer, to 10 per side of rachis, variously shaped, often rhomboid or lobed, less often linear, without ears at bases   (2)
+ Pinnae many, to 150 per side of rachis, linear, usually with ears at bases   (3)
2 (1) Inflorescences with 2-8 rachillae.   5 A. longicarpa
+ Inflorescences with 1(-3) rachillae.   6 A. caudata
3 (1) Stems clustered.   1 A. engleri
+ Stems solitary   (4)
4 (3) Stems to 20 m tall; pinnae irregularly arranged and spreading in different planes; cultivated.   2 A. pinnata
+ Stems to 12 m tall; pinnae regularly arranged and spreading in same plane; naturally occurring   (5)
5 (4) Stems to 12 m tall (lowland forests, usually below 600 m).   3 A. westerhoutii
+ Stems to 8 m tall (montane forests, 1400-2200 m).   4 A. micrantha

Lower Taxa


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