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2. Dipterocarpaceae

龙脑香科 long nao xiang ke

Authors: Xi-wen Li, Jie Li & Peter S. Ashton

Trees, evergreen or semievergreen, rarely deciduous in dry season. Xylem with aromatic resin in intercellular resin canals. Branchlets with stipular scars, sometimes annular. Leaves simple, alternate; stipules persistent or caducous, large or small; leaf blade with lateral veins pinnate, margin entire or sinuate-crenate. Inflorescences few- or many-flowered, terminal or axillary racemes or panicles; flowers usually sweetly scented; bracts usually fugacious and minute, rarely persistent and large. Inflorescences, calyces, petals, ovary, and other parts usually with stellate, squamate, fascicled or free-standing hairs. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, contorted. Calyx lobes 5, free or united at base, imbricate in bud if not united. Petals 5, adnate or connate at base. Stamens (10-)15 to many, free from or connate to petals; filaments usually dilated at base; anthers 2-celled, with 2 pollen sacs per cell (Chinese species); connective appendages aristate, filiform or stout. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior, slightly immersed in torus, usually 3-loculed, each locule 2-, rarely many ovuled; ovules pendulous, lateral or anatropous. Fruit usually nutlike, sometimes capsular and 3-valved, 1(to many)-seeded, with persistent, variously accrescent calyx of which 2 or more lobes are usually developed into lorate wings. Seed exalbuminous; cotyledons fleshy, equal or unequal, applanate or ± folded or cerebriform, entire or laciniate; radicle directed toward hilum, usually included between cotyledons.

About 17 genera and 550 species: tropical Africa, Asia, and South America (in Asia, most species and genera in NW Borneo); five genera and 12 species (one endemic, one introduced) in China.

Tong Shaoquan & Tao Gouda. 1990. Dipterocarpaceae. In: Li Hsiwen, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 50(2): 113-131.

1 Calyx in fruit with a distinct tube, free; leaf venation plicate.   1 Dipterocarpus
+ Calyx in fruit without a tube; leaf venation not plicate   (2)
2 (1) Fruit sepals without basal thickening; leaf tertiary veins reticulate.   5 Vatica
+ Flower sepals with basal thickening appressed to nut; leaf tertiary veins generally scalariform   (3)
3 (2) Ovary with distinct stylopodium; 2 calyx segments enlarged into wings or all calyx segments not enlarged into wings.   2 Hopea
+ Ovary without distinct stylopodium; 3 or all calyx segments enlarged into wings   (4)
4 (3) Fruit sepals subequal, imbricate; bark, crest of buttresses and bases of fissures prominently pale corky lenticellate.   3 Parashorea
+ Fruit sepals unequal, 3 long, aliform; bark, crest of buttresses and bases of fissures scarcely lenticellate.   4 Shorea

Lower Taxa


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