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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 18 | Gesneriaceae

10. Briggsia Craib, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh. 11: 236. 1919.

粗筒苣苔属 cu tong ju tai shu

Herbs, perennial, epipetric, epiphytic, or terrestrial, rhizomatous, stemmed or stemless. Stems simple, rarely branched. Leaves few to many, basal or on stem and opposite or rarely alternate, crowded near apex or spread along stem, equal to unequal in a pair; leaf blade base cuneate to attenuate or cordate, rarely peltate. Inflorescences lax, axillary, sometimes subumbel-like, 1- to many-flowered cymes; bracts 2 or rarely 3, opposite, rarely whorled. Calyx actinomorphic, 5-sect from base, rarely 5-lobed from middle; segments equal, rarely unequal. Corolla blue, purple, to red or orange to white, usually spotted within, zygomorphic, inside glabrous to pubescent or glandular puberulent; tube narrowly campanulate, gibbous abaxially, 2-3 X longer than limb, (0.7-)1-2(-2.6) cm in diam.; limb 2-lipped; adaxial lip 2-lobed, rarely 2-sect from base, 3 X to slightly shorter than abaxial lip; abaxial lip 3-lobed, lobes equal or subequal, apex obtuse to rounded, truncate, or acute. Stamens 4, adnate to corolla tube near base, rarely to near or above middle, included; anthers basifixed, coherent in pairs at apex, thecae divergent, not confluent or confluent at apex, dehiscing longitudinally; connective not projecting; staminode 1 or absent, adnate to adaxial side of corolla tube. Disc ringlike. Ovary linear to narrowly oblong, 1-loculed; placentas 2, parietal, projecting inward, 2-cleft. Stigmas 2, equal, 2-lipped, undivided. Capsule straight in relation to pedicel, narrowly lanceolate-oblong to oblanceolate, much longer than calyx, dehiscing loculicidally to base; valves 2, straight, not twisted. Seeds unappendaged.

About 22 species: Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Sikkim, Vietnam; 21 species in China.

The delimitations of Briggsia and Loxostigma are somewhat problematic. Three species in this treatment (B. kurzii, B. longicaulis, and B. dongxingensis) are rather unlike others, and Weitzman and Skog believe that they probably belong in Loxostigma. Arguments by Burtt (Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 34: 101-106. 1975), which appeared before the publication of B. longicaulis, and B. dongxingensis, appear to support this placement. Loxostigma is somewhat intermediate between Briggsia and Lysionotus, which are generally placed in different tribes. These three species of Briggsia have stems and herbaceous leaves as in Loxostigma, and only the lack of seed appendages supports their placement in Briggsia.

1 Leaf blade and petioles glabrous; anthers ovoid.   (2)
+ Leaf blade and petioles puberulent to woolly at least along veins; anthers globose or reniform.   (3)
2 (1) Leaf blade base peltate or rounded to nearly cuneate, margin entire to shallowly serrate; calyx segments 8-11 X 2-5 mm; peduncle sparsely brownish villous, rarely glabrescent   4 Briggsia longipes
+ Leaf blade base cuneate, margin crenate-serrate; calyx segments 4-7 X 1.5-3 mm; peduncle glabrous to glabrescent   5 Briggsia mihieri
3 (1) Stems to 60 cm; leaves spread along stem or clustered near stem apex, unequal to equal in a pair; anthers globose.   (4)
+ Plants stemless; leaves basal; anthers reniform.   (6)
4 (3) Leaves mostly clustered near stem apex, equal to subequal in a pair; peduncle 1.2-6.2 cm; corolla glabrous inside; stamens adnate to corolla 4-5 mm above base, 2.5-3 cm   1 Briggsia kurzii
+ Leaves spread along stem, unequal in a pair; peduncle 4-10.5 cm; corolla sparsely pubescent inside on adaxial lip; stamens adnate to corolla 1-2 cm above base, 1.2-1.8 cm.   (5)
5 (4) Calyx segments unequal; petiole 0.5-12 cm; cymes 1-12-flowered; pedicel 0.8-2.5 cm; corolla adaxial lip 4-6 mm, abaxial lip 10-19 mm; style 13-15 mm   2 Briggsia longicaulis
+ Calyx segments equal; petiole 0.5-2.8 cm; cymes 1-4-flowered; pedicel 0.4-0.7 cm; corolla adaxial lip ca. 1.1 cm, abaxial lip 7-9 mm; style 7-11 mm   3 Briggsia dongxingensis
6 (3) Pistil and capsule glabrous.   (7)
+ Pistil glandular puberulent to glandular pubescent; capsule glabrescent to glandular pubescent.   (14)
7 (6) Adaxial stamens ca. 4.5 mm, abaxial stamens ca. 6.5 mm; leaf blade 1.5-2.2 X 0.8-1.2 cm; corolla ca. 1.8 X 0.7 cm, pilose outside   11 Briggsia humilis
+ Adaxial stamens 8-20 mm, abaxial stamens 12-23 mm; leaf blade 2-19 X 1-6 cm; corolla 1.8-4.2 X 0.9-2 cm, glabrous to pubescent outside.   (8)
8 (7) Bracts 3-5 mm wide, bract and calyx margin subentire or sparsely dentate; staminode ca. 3 mm   13 Briggsia chienii
+ Bracts 0.5-3 mm wide, bract and calyx margin entire; staminode 0.4-1 mm.   (9)
9 (8) Calyx segments broadly ovate, 8-10 X 4-5 mm; corolla pubescent outside, adaxial lobes ca. 5 mm wide   12 Briggsia latisepala
+ Calyx segments lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, 3-7 X 1-3 mm; corolla glandular puberulent to sparsely pubescent outside, adaxial lobes 2-4 mm wide.   (10)
10 (9) Corolla glabrous outside, adaxial lip 6-9 mm, lobes oblong, 4-6 mm; stamens 2-2.3 cm; bracts pubescent to puberulent inside; calyx segments obscurely 3-veined   9 Briggsia stewardii
+ Corolla glandular pubescent outside, adaxial lip 2-5 mm, lobes semiorbicular, 1-4 mm; stamens 0.8-1.5 cm; bracts glabrous inside; calyx segments veins indistinct.   (11)
11 (10) Corolla purple; leaf blade base cuneate to cordate; adaxial stamens adnate to corolla 1 cm above base, filaments pale yellow villous near base, glabrescent near apex   10 Briggsia mairei
+ Corolla yellow to deep orange, rarely bud purple-blue; leaf blade base attenuate to broadly cuneate; adaxial stamens adnate to corolla 2.5-4 mm above base, filaments glabrous to sparsely puberulent.   (12)
12 (11) Calyx segments 3-3.5 mm; leaf blade apex obtuse to acute, adaxially densely rust-brown villous, abaxially densely rust-brown woolly and villous; peduncle (3-)6-13 cm; bracts linear to narrowly triangular   6 Briggsia aurantiaca
+ Calyx segments 4-7 mm; leaf blade apex acute, adaxially white or gray appressed puberulent or pubescent, abaxially appressed white or gray pubescent, veins and sometimes margin brown villous; peduncle 5.5-23 cm; bracts lanceolate or oblanceolate.   (13)
13 (12) Leaf blade base attenuate, margin serrulate; corolla margin sometimes flushed darker, not striate or spotted inside; bracts pubescent outside; filaments glabrous   7 Briggsia longifolia
+ Leaf blade base often slightly oblique, narrowly to broadly cuneate, margin serrate to serrate-crenate, sometimes doubly so; corolla inside purple-red to orange or brown spotted or striate; bracts rust-brown villous outside; filaments sparsely puberulent   8 Briggsia muscicola
14 (6) Leaf blade 1-2.2 X 0.7-1.2 cm; corolla adaxial lip 1.5-3.5 mm, abaxial lip 4-7 mm.   (15)
+ Leaf blade (1.2-)2-15 X (0.8-)1-8 cm; corolla adaxial lip 4-9 mm, abaxial lip 8-20 mm.   (16)
15 (14) Leaf blade base shallowly cordate; cymes 1-3-flowered; peduncle 7-9 cm; bracts 3-4 mm; stamens 14-17 mm   11 Briggsia humilis
+ Leaf blade base cuneate; cymes 1-flowered; peduncle 5-6.5 cm; bracts 1-2 mm; stamens 4.5-6.5 mm   21 Briggsia parvifolia
16 (14) Bracts 8-14 X 3-5 mm; calyx segments 2-5 mm wide; bract and calyx margin subentire or sparsely dentate; leaf blade adaxially pilose   13 Briggsia chienii
+ Bracts 2-10 X 0.6-3 mm, margin entire; calyx segments 1-3 mm wide, margin entire, rarely sparsely dentate; leaf blade appressed pubescent to villous, not pilose.   (17)
17 (16) Bracts inside pubescent to sparsely pubescent; calyx segments margin sparsely dentate; leaf blade surfaces appressed puberulent   20 Briggsia pinfaensis
+ Bracts inside glabrous; calyx segments margin entire; leaf blade surfaces pubescent to villous.   (18)
18 (17) Cymes 1-flowered; leaf blade ovate to rhombic-ovate, margin shallowly serrate; abaxial corolla lobes 10-12 mm   15 Briggsia agnesiae
+ Cymes 1-5(-8)-flowered; leaf blade ovate to narrowly elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, margin dentate to serrate or crenate, sometime double, but not shallow; abaxial corolla lobes 4-10 mm.   (19)
19 (18) Corolla glabrous outside, lobes narrowly triangular; pistil ca. 9 mm; leaf blade adaxially puberulent and sparsely rust-brown villous; peduncle sparsely rust-brown villous and glandular pubescent   16 Briggsia acutiloba
+ Corolla glabrescent to pubescent, lobes semiorbicular to oblong, narrowly lanceolate, elliptic-ovate, or broadly triangular; pistil 1.6-3.4 mm; leaf blade adaxially pubescent or villous, but only 1 type of hair; peduncle villous to pubescent, but only 1 type of hair.   (20)
20 (19) Petiole 1-3 cm, densely puberulent; peduncle 4-9(-11) cm, pubescent; bracts and calyx pubescent outside; corolla glabrous inside   17 Briggsia speciosa
+ Petiole 1-8(-13) cm, villous; peduncle 3.5-20 cm, villous; bracts and calyx villous outside; corolla sparsely pubescent, glandular pubescent, or pubescent inside.   (21)
21 (20) Staminode ca. 0.5 mm; leaf blade 2.6-5.5(-8) X 1.5-3(-5.5) cm, abaxially pubescent; lateral veins adaxially inconspicuous; bracts 6-10 mm   19 Briggsia elegantissima
+ Staminode 1-3 mm; leaf blade 2-15 X 1.2-8 cm, abaxially pubescent, villous along veins; lateral veins adaxially conspicuous or prominent; bracts 2-7 mm.   (22)
22 (21) Leaf blade with at least some rust-brown villous hairs on both surfaces, apex rounded to obtuse; calyx segments veins indistinct; staminode 2.5-3 mm   14 Briggsia forrestii
+ Leaf blade surfaces white pubescent, apex obtuse to acute; calyx segments obscurely 3-5-veined; staminode 1-2.2 mm   18 Briggsia rosthornii

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