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Loganiaceae R. Brown ex C. Martius

马钱科 ma qian ke

Authors: Bingtao Li & Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg

Buddleja davidii

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Trees, shrubs, woody climbers, or herbs, sometimes epiphytic, sometimes with axillary spines or tendrils. Leaves opposite, occasionally alternate, rarely verticillate, fasciculate, or in a whorl; stipules usually present, often reduced to lines connecting petiole bases, sometimes reduced to petiolar ocrea or a connate leaf-sheath; leaf blade usually entire, pinnately veined or 3--7-veined from base. Flowers in cymes, these often grouped into thyrses; cymes sometimes umbel-like, scorpioid or reduced to a single flower; bracts usually small. Flowers usually bisexual. Calyx 4- or 5-lobed; lobes free or connate, mostly persistent, imbricate or valvate. Corolla sympetalous; lobes 4 or 5(--16), valvate, imbricate or contorted in bud. Stamens inserted on corolla, included to exserted, equal in number to corolla lobes and alternating with them or sometimes fewer; filaments free, much shorter to much longer than anthers; anthers basifixed, 2--4-locular, dehiscing introrsely or extrorsely by longitudinal slits, base slightly to deeply parted. Disc ring-shaped or not. Ovary superior or rarely semi-inferior, (1- or)2(--4)-locular, placentation axillary or parietal; ovules 1 to many per locule. Style simple, terminal, persistent or deciduous; stigma usually capitate, entire or shortly 2--4-cleft. Fruit a capsule, berry, or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seeds sometimes winged; endosperm fleshy or horny; embryo minute, straight; cotyledons small.

Some 29 genera and about 500 species: mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, absent from Europe; eight genera and 45 species (ten endemic) in China.

Li Ping-tao in Chang Mei-chen & Qiu Lian-qing, eds. 1992. Loganiaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 61: 223-309.


1 Herbaceous, annual or perennial.   (2)
+ Woody, shrubs, trees, or climbers.   (3)
       
2 (1) Flowers 5-merous; internodes of inflorescence shorter than flowers, sometimes elongating after anthesis and then slightly longer than fruits   1 Mitreola
+ Flowers 4-merous; internodes of inflorescence much longer than flowers or inflorescence 1-flowered   2 Mitrasacme
       
3 (1) Leaf blade with 1--3 pairs of distinct longitudinal secondary veins from or near base and curved along margin; if lianas then with axillary, simple, or double curled tendrils, sometimes with axillary thorns   4 Strychnos
+ Leaf blade without 1--3 pairs of distinct longitudinal secondary veins from or near base; tendrils and thorns absent.   (4)
       
4 (3) Flowers 5.5--6.5 cm; leaf blade fleshy to leathery, veins often inconspicuous   8 Fagraea
+ Flowers less than 3 cm; leaf blade papery or leathery, veins mostly conspicuous.   (5)
       
5 (4) Aestivation valvate; corolla rotate; fruit baccate   5 Gardneria
+ Aestivation imbricate; corolla funnelform or salverform; fruit capsular (Buddleja madagascariensis is baccate).   (6)
       
6 (5) Sepals connate; flowers 4-merous; leaf blade margin often serrate   7 Buddleja
+ Sepals free or nearly so; flowers 5-merous; leaf blade margin entire.   (7)
       
7 (6) Inflorescences axillary; corolla 2--5 mm   3 Geniostoma
+ Inflorescences terminal; corolla 12--19 mm   6 Gelsemium

Lower Taxa


 

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