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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae

57. Cephalanthera Richard, De Orchid. Eur. 21, 29, 38. 1817.

头蕊兰属 tou rui lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale & Phillip J. Cribb

Callithronum Ehrhart; Dorycheile Reichenbach; Eburophyton A. Heller; Xiphophyllum Ehrhart.

Herbs, terrestrial, autotrophic or holomycotrophic. Rhizome creeping, cylindric, slender; roots fasciculate, filiform, fleshy, usually numerous though few in holomycotrophic species. Stem erect, unbranched, leafy, with 1 to a few subcymbiform or cylindric basal sheaths. Leaves alternate, plicate, sessile, directly sheathing stem at base, reduced to membranous sheaths in holomycotrophic species. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, many or few flowered, rarely 1-flowered; proximal floral bracts foliaceous and usually longer than flowers, distal ones much shorter. Flowers resupinate, suberect, weakly spreading and campanulate, or rarely widely spreading, white, pink, or yellow; ovary slightly twisted, glabrous. Sepals free, similar to each other, subequal. Petals slightly shorter than sepals, ± connivent with sepals; lip adnate to base of column, 2-partite or rarely simple and not distinct from petals in peloric forms; hypochile with erect lateral lobes embracing column, saccate or with a short spur at base; epichile spreading, ovate-elliptic, apex obtuse or acute; disk with 3-7 longitudinal lamellae, or unornamented in peloric forms. Column erect, usually with 2 narrow lateral wings; anther erect, hinged, 2-locular; pollinia 2, each 2-partite, granular-farinaceous, lacking caudicles and viscidia; stigma concave, rounded; rostellum inconspicuous or absent. Capsule erect.

About 15 species: mainly in Europe, N Africa, and E Asia, but also in the Himalayas, SE Asia, and extending to the west coast of North America; nine species (four endemic) in China.

1 Holomycotrophic herbs lacking green leaves   (2)
+ Leafy autotrophic herbs   (3)
2 (1) Epichile of lip transversely oblong-elliptic, apex obtuse; lamellae extending from base to middle or slightly above middle of epichile; spur arising from base of hypochile.   1 C. calcarata
+ Epichile of lip broadly ovate, apex acute-acuminate; lamellae extending from base almost to apex of epichile; spur arising from slightly above base of hypochile.   2 C. gracilis
3 (1) Flowers yellow.   3 C. falcata
+ Flowers white   (4)
4 (3) Lip simple, similar to petals, not spurred or saccate at base.   4 C. nanlingensis
+ Lip 2-partite, distinct from petals, spurred or saccate at base   (5)
5 (4) Hypochile of lip spurred at base, spur protruding between bases of lateral sepals   (6)
+ Hypochile of lip saccate or gibbous-saccate, enclosed within bases of lateral sepals   (7)
6 (5) Plants 2-4(or 5)-leaved; leaves 2-8 cm.   5 C. erecta
+ Plants 6-8-leaved; leaves 6-14 cm.   6 C. longibracteata
7 (5) Floral bracts all more than 30 mm, foliaceous and exceeding ovary.   7 C. damasonium
+ Floral bracts only basal 1 or 2 foliaceous and exceeding ovary, distal ones not more than 6 mm   (8)
8 (7) Rachis 6-14 cm, laxly 3-14-flowered; lip 7-12 mm.   8 C. alpicola
+ Rachis 1.5-6 cm, subdensely 2-20-flowered; lip 5-7 mm.   9 C. longifolia

Lower Taxa


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