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Sapotaceae A. L. Jussieu

山榄科 shan lan ke

Authors: Shugang Li & T. D. Pennington

Trees or shrubs, usually producing latex. Leaves spirally arranged or alternate and distichous, rarely ± opposite, sometimes crowded at apex of branchlets; stipules early deciduous or absent; leaf blade papery or leathery, margin entire. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, usually in sessile axillary clusters, rarely solitary; cluster pedunculate or in raceme-like inflorescence, bracteolate. Calyx a single whorl of usually 4--6 sepals, or 2 whorls each with 2--4 sepals. Corolla lobes as many to 2 X as many as sepals, usually entire, rarely with 2 lacerate or lobular appendages. Stamens inserted at corolla base or at throat of corolla tube, as many as and opposite corolla lobes to many and in 2 or 3 whorls; staminodes when present alternate with stamens, scaly to petal-like. Ovary superior, 4- or 5-locular, placentation axillary; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous. Style 1, often apically lobed. Fruit a berry or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seed coat brown (pale yellow in Pouteria annamensis), hard, shiny, rich in tannin; endosperm usually oily; seed scar lateral and linear to oblong or basal and round.

About 1100 species and 53 genera: pantropical; 11 genera and 24 species (six endemic) in China.

Li Shu-gang (as Lee Shu-kang). 1987. Sapotaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 60(1): 47-83.


1 Sepals usually 4 or 6 in 2 whorls.   (2)
+ Sepals 4 or 5 in 1 whorl.   (4)
       
2 (1) Sepals usually 4   1 Madhuca
+ Sepals usually 6.   (3)
       
3 (2) Corolla appendages present; stamens 6; staminodes present   2 Manilkara
+ Corolla appendages absent; stamens 12--18; staminodes absent   3 Palaquium
       
4 (1) Corolla appendages present   4 Eberhardtia
+ Corolla appendages absent.   (5)
       
5 (4) Staminodes absent.   (6)
+ Staminodes present.   (7)
       
6 (5) Stamens 5--10; stipules absent   5 Chrysophyllum
+ Stamens 16--18; stipules present   6 Diploknema
       
7 (5) Filaments with a cluster of villous hairs on both sides, rarely at only one side, at base; staminodes awned; plant usually spinous   7 Xantolis
+ Filaments without hairs; staminodes not awned; plant not spinous.   (8)
       
8 (7) Seed scar lateral.   (9)
+ Seed scar basal.   (10)
       
9 (8) Fruit 2.5--4.5 cm; seed scar oblong or ovate   8 Pouteria
+ Fruit less than 2.5 cm; seed scar narrow   9 Planchonella
       
10 (8) Leaves spirally arranged, not stipulate; ovary 5-locular; berry ovoid or globose, pericarp thick   10 Sinosideroxylon
+ Leaves opposite or subopposite, stipulate; ovary 1- or 2-locular; fruit drupelike, ellipsoid, pericarp very thin   11 Sarcosperma

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