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12. CRATAEGUS Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 475. 1753.

山楂属 shan zha shu

Gu Cuizhi (Ku Tsue-chih); Stephen A. Spongberg

Shrubs, subshrubs, or small trees, deciduous, rarely evergreen, armed, rarely unarmed; buds ovoid or subglobose. Leaves simple, stipulate, venation craspedodromous, margin serrate and lobed or partite, rarely entire. Inflorescences corymbose, sometimes flowers solitary. Hypanthium campanulate. Sepals 5. Petals 5, white, rarely pinkish. Stamens 5–25; carpels 1–5, connate, but free apically. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, with 2 ovules per locule, but one rudimentary. Fruit a pome, with persistent sepals at apex; carpels bony when mature, each locule with 1 seed; seed erect, cotyledons plano-convex.

At least 1000 species: N temperate regions, especially abundant in North America; 18 species (ten endemic) in China.

Crataegus biloba H. Léveillé, described from Guizhou, is Symplocos paniculata (Thunberg) Miquel in the Symplocaceae (see Fl. China 15: 252. 1996), under which it has been recognized as f. biloba (H. Léveillé) Rehder. Crataegus lyi H. Léveillé (Fl. Kouy-Tcheou, 347. 1915), also described from Guizhou, is the same species.

1 Leaves deeply pinnatifid to more than 1/2 width of blade, some lateral veins extending to apices of lobes, some to sinus between lobes.   (2)
+ Leaves lobed or not divided, lateral veins extending to apices of lobes or teeth only.   (5)
2 (1) Fruit yellow or red; pyrenes (nutlets) with concave scars on 2 inner sides.   (3)
+ Fruit red or black; pyrenes smooth on 2 inner sides.   (4)
3 (2) Fruit golden-yellow, 8–10 mm in diam., pyrenes 4 or 5; leaves glabrous or slightly pubescent.   15 C. altaica
+ Fruit red, 4–8 mm in diam., pyrenes 3–5; leaves glabrous.   16 C. remotilobata
4 (2) Leaves cuneate, rarely broadly cuneate, with 2 or 3 pairs of lobes, subglabrous on both surfaces; fruit black; pyrenes 2 or 3.   18 C. songarica
+ Leaves truncate or broadly cuneate, with 3–5 pairs of lobes, pubescent along midvein and lateral veins; fruit red; pyrenes 3–5.   1 C. pinnatifida
5 (1) Fruit black; inflorescence glabrous or nearly so.   (6)
+ Fruit red, rarely yellow; inflorescence pubescent or glabrous.   (7)
6 (5) Pulp green; pyrenes 4 or 5, with concave scars on 2 inner sides; leaf blade triangular-ovate to broadly ovate, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, with 3–5 pairs of lobes, pubescent on both surfaces.   17 C. chlorosarca
+ Pulp yellow; pyrenes 2 or 3, smooth on 2 inner sides; leaf blade rhomboidal to broadly ovate, base cuneate, sometimes broadly cuneate, with 2 or 3 pairs of lobes, subglabrous on both surfaces.   18 C. songarica
7 (5) Branches usually unarmed; leaf margin crenate-serrate or obtusely serrate, often not lobed, rarely 3–5-lobed on sterile branches.   2 C. scabrifolia
+ Branches armed, leaf blade lobed.   (8)
8 (7) Leaf margin crenate-serrate, with 2–4 pairs of lobes in apical part.   (9)
+ Leaf margin sharply serrate, often with 2–4 pairs of lobes in apical part, rarely only 3-lobed near apex.   (10)
9 (8) Hypanthium and sepals abaxially glabrous; sepals entire.   3 C. hupehensis
+ Hypanthium and sepals abaxially densely pubescent; sepals 2–4-crenulate-serrate.   4 C. shensiensis
10 (8) Pedicel and peduncle pubescent or tomentose.   (11)
+ Pedicel and peduncle glabrous.   (16)
11 (10) Leaf basally cuneate, margin apically incised or 3(–7)-lobed; pyrenes smooth on both inner sides.   (12)
+ Leaf basally broadly cuneate to rounded, margin with 3–7 pairs of lobes; pyrenes with concave scars on both inner sides.   (13)
12 (11) Simple corymb 2–2.5 cm in diam., 5–7-flowered; petiole 4–5 mm.   5 C. cuneata
+ Compound corymb ca. 8 cm in diam.; 7–18-flowered; petiole 1.5–4 cm.   6 C. shandongensis
13 (11) Leaves adaxially subglabrous, abaxially sparsely pubescent.   (14)
+ Leaves pubescent on both surfaces.   (15)
14 (13) Thorns 6–10 mm; leaf petiole pilose or subglabrous, blade margin sharply serrate; fruit ellipsoid, glabrous.   7 C. wilsonii
+ Thorns 10–25 mm; leaf petiole glabrescent, blade margin doubly serrate; fruit subglobose, sparsely pubescent.   8 C. oresbia
15 (13) Leaf basally cuneate or broadly cuneate, occasionally truncate; fruit globose, red or purplish brown.   9 C. maximowiczii
+ Leaf basally rounded, truncate, or broadly cuneate; fruit subglobose, orangish red.   10 C. aurantia
16 (10) Leaf basally cuneate; fruit sanguine, ca. 1 cm in diam.   11 C. sanguinea
+ Leaf basally truncate or broadly cuneate; fruit yellow, orange, red, or black, not more than 1 cm in diam.   (17)
17 (16) Ovary apically glabrous.   (18)
+ Ovary apically pubescent.   (19)
18 (17) Leaf blade rhombic-ovate or elliptic-ovate, with 3–5 pairs of lobes, apex acuminate; fruit subglobose or oblong, orangish red.   12 C. dahurica
+ Leaf blade broadly ovate, with 2–4 pairs of lobes, apex obtuse; fruit ellipsoid, red.   13 C. chungtienensis
19 (17) Leaf blade with 5–7 pairs of lobes, margin densely serrate.   14 C. kansuensis
+ Leaf blade with 2–4 pairs of lobes, margin remotely serrate.   (20)
20 (19) Thorns usually absent; corymbs 3–4 cm in diam.; fruit yellow, 8–10 mm in diam.   15 C. altaica
+ Thorns usually present; corymbs 6–7 cm in diam.; fruit red, 4–8 mm in diam.   16 C. remotilobata

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