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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Thelypteridaceae

14. Cyclosorus Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 128. 1833.

毛蕨属 mao jue shu

Authors: Youxing Lin, Li Zhongyang & Kunio Iwatsuki

Amphineuron Holttum; Christella H. Léveillé; Pneumatopteris Nakai; Sphaerostephanos J. Smith.

Plants usually medium-sized, terrestrial. Rhizomes creeping to erect, scaly (sometimes also hairy). Fronds distant to clustered; laminae usually oblong-lanceolate, narrowed or not to bases, pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid; middle pinnae usually linear-lanceolate, subentire to deeply lobed, sometimes with swollen aerophores at bases abaxially; apical pinnae usually more lobed; proximal pinnae sometimes shortened; segments entire or rarely crenate; veinlets simple or rarely forked, proximal one or more pairs on adjacent segments anastomosing with an excurrent veinlet from uniting point to sinus membrane, other veinlets to sinus membrane or margin above sinus. Laminae herbaceous to papery, both surfaces usually hairy along costae and veins, abaxial surface sometimes glandular. Sori orbicular, usually at middle of veinlets; indusia orbicular-reniform, membranous, glabrous or hairy, sometimes glandular, persistent. Sporangia usually bearing hairs or glands. Spores oblong-reniform, cristate, with wings or echinate. x = 36.

About 250 species: distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World, most in Asia; several species also in the New World; 40 species (ten endemic) in China.

"Christella sadlerioidea" (H. Léveillé, Fl. Kouy-Tchéou, 475. 1915) is a nomen nudum and was not therefore validly published (Melbourne Code, Art. 38.1(a)). Léveillé recorded C. urophylla (Mettenius) H. Léveillé (Fl. Kouy-Tchéou, 476. 1915; Phegopteris urophylla Mettenius, Abh. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges. 2: 310. 1858; Aspidium urophyllum (Mettenius) Christ; Dryopteris urophylla (Mettenius) C. Christensen; Goniopteris urophylla (Mettenius) Beddome; Nephrodium urophyllum (Mettenius) Beddome; Polypodium urophyllum (Mettenius) Wallich ex Hooker; Thelypteris urophylla (Mettenius) K. Iwatsuki) from Guizhou, but there is no other record of this Malaysian species from China.

The following taxa are excluded from the present treatment, pending further research: Cyclosorus lunganensis Ching (Wuyi Sci. J. 1: 5. 1981), described from Fujian, C. oppositipinnus Ching & Z. Y. Liu (Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 15. 1984), described from Sichuan, and C. subdentatus Ching (Wuyi Sci. J. 1: 4. 1981), described from Fujian.

1 Aquatic plants; costae with ovate scales abaxially.   1 C. interruptus
+ Terrestrial plants; costae without scales or rarely with lanceolate scales abaxially   (2)
2 (1) Pinnae with sessile spherical glands abaxially, or pustular between veins when dried; sporangia bearing sessile glands on capsules; spores yellow to light brown   (3)
+ Pinnae without glands or with ellipsoid/clavate glands abaxially; sporangia bearing glands on stalks or without glands; spores brown to black   (7)
3 (2) Pinnae without glands but pustular between veins when dried; segments truncate at apices.   2 C. truncatus
+ Pinnae with sessile spherical glands abaxially and not pustular; segments acute or obtuse at apices   (4)
4 (3) Sporangia bearing hairs on capsules; rhizomes creeping.   3 C. productus
+ Sporangia glabrous; rhizomes erect or suberect   (5)
5 (4) Proximal pinnae gradually shortened; pinnae almost glabrous abaxially.   4 C. latebrosus
+ Proximal pinnae abruptly shortened; pinnae hairy abaxially   (6)
6 (5) Proximal pinnae narrowed at bases; middle pinnae with basal segments not elongate; indusia large, thickly membranous.   5 C. heterocarpus
+ Proximal pinnae not narrowed at bases; middle pinnae with basal segments elongate; indusia small, membranous.   6 C. taiwanensis
7 (2) Proximal veinlets on each segment sterile; veinlets with minute yellow glands abaxially   (8)
+ Proximal veinlets on each segment usually fertile; veinlets without such minute yellow glands   (9)
8 (7) Veinlets 1 pair beneath sinus; pinnae lobed 1/2-2/3 toward costae.   7 C. opulentus
+ Veinlets ca. 2.5 pairs beneath sinus; pinnae lobed 1/3-1/2 toward costae.   8 C. terminans
9 (7) Veinlets 1-1.5(-2) pairs beneath sinus; laminae herbaceous to papery   (10)
+ Veinlets 2 or more pairs beneath sinus; laminae papery   (21)
10 (9) Rachises distally with scales; lowest pinnae shortened to ca. 1 cm.   9 C. crinipes
+ Rachises distally without scales; lowest pinnae much longer than 1 cm   (11)
11 (10) Proximal pinnae narrowed at bases, with shortened basal segments.   10 C. shimenensis
+ Proximal pinnae not narrowed or slightly so at bases, with basal segments not shortened   (12)
12 (11) Basal pinnae ?reduced; pinnae lanceolate or oblanceolate   (13)
+ Proximal pinnae not reduced or slightly so; pinnae linear-lanceolate   (15)
13 (12) Plants 20-80 cm tall; pinnae without glands abaxially; veinlets ca. 1.5 pairs beneath sinus.   11 C. dentatus
+ Plants to 20 cm tall; pinnae with glands abaxially; veinlets 1 pair beneath sinus   (14)
14 (13) Pinnae with dense, short acicular hairs; hairs on indusia no longer than diam. of sori; glands abaxially small.   12 C. subacutus
+ Pinnae with sparse acicular hairs; hairs on indusia longer than diam. of sori; glands abaxially large.   13 C. parvifolius
15 (12) Pinnae without glands abaxially; rhizomes creeping or erect   (16)
+ Pinnae glandular abaxially; rhizomes creeping   (18)
16 (15) Rhizomes erect; excurrent veinlet short, sometimes obscure.   14 C. siamensis
+ Rhizomes creeping; excurrent veinlet long and evident   (17)
17 (16) Sporangia bearing glands on stalks; acicular hairs on indusia shorter than diam. of sori   15 C. procurrens
+ Sporangia lacking conspicuous glands; acicular hairs on indusia longer than diam. of sori.   16 C. molliusculus
18 (15) Pinnae with long clavate glands; proximal pinnae narrowed at bases   17 C. cylindrothrix
+ Pinnae with ellipsoid glands or capitate glandular hairs; proximal pinnae not narrowed at bases   (19)
19 (18) Laminae much longer than stipes; veinlets 10-16 pairs per segment.   18 C. procerus
+ Laminae no longer than stipes; veinlets 4-8 pairs per segment   (20)
20 (19) Pinnae with glands abaxially; veinlets 5-8 pairs per segment; pinnae wider than 1 cm   19 C. parasiticus
+ Pinnae with glandular hairs abaxially; veinlets 4-6 pairs per segment; pinnae usually narrower than 1 cm.   20 C. pygmaeus
21 (9) Sporangia bearing hairs on capsules and eglandular   (22)
+ Sporangia lacking hairs but with glands (rarely eglandular)   (23)
22 (21) Middle pinnae 1-2 cm wide; proximal pinnae not decrescent at bases.   21 C. hirtisorus
+ Middle pinnae 2-3.5 cm wide; proximal pinnae decrescent at bases.   22 C. attenuatus
23 (21) Rhizomes and stipe bases with ovate scales; pinnae with setae along costules; veinlets usually over 6 pairs beneath sinus.   23 C. articulatus
+ Rhizomes and stipe bases with ovate-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate scales; pinnae subglabrous or with acicular hairs along costules; veinlets 2-5 pairs beneath sinus   (24)
24 (23) Sporangia bearing large spherical red glands on stalks; pinnae with minute hairs or subglabrous abaxially   (25)
+ Sporangia bearing ellipsoid or clavate, golden or reddish orange glands on stalks (rarely eglandular); pinnae usually ?hairy abaxially   (26)
25 (24) Rhizomes erect; veinlets ca. 2 pairs beneath sinus.   24 C. papilio
+ Rhizomes creeping; veinlets ca. 3 pairs beneath sinus.   25 C. evolutus
26 (24) Lateral pinnae lobed to 1/3 toward costae, sometimes subentire; pinnae with dense, capitate glandular hairs abaxially.   26 C. latipinnus
+ Lateral pinnae usually more lobed; pinnae usually without glandular hairs   (27)
27 (26) Pinnae eglandular abaxially (sometimes with glandular hairs)   (28)
+ Pinnae glandular abaxially   (34)
28 (27) Veinlets ca. 2 pairs beneath sinus; middle pinnae with elongate basal acroscopic segment.   27 C. acuminatus
+ Veinlets more numerous; middle pinnae with normal or shortened basal acroscopic segment   (29)
29 (28) Rhizomes shortly creeping; proximal pinnae not shortened or 1 or 2 pairs slightly shortened   (30)
+ Rhizomes long creeping; proximal 3 or more pairs of pinnae shortened   (32)
30 (29) Veinlets 5-8 pairs per segment; middle pinnae usually less than 1.5 cm wide   28 C. nanxiensis
+ Veinlets 8-11 pairs per segment; middle pinnae usually more than 2 cm wide   (31)
31 (30) Lateral pinnae usually more than 12 pairs; sori orbicular.   29 C. scaberulus
+ Lateral pinnae usually less than 12 pairs; sori usually slightly elongate.   30 C. calvescens
32 (29) Pinnae with long acicular hairs abaxially; proximal shortened pinnae caudate at apices.   31 C. hokouensis
+ Pinnae without hairs abaxially; proximal shortened pinnae acute or obtuse at apices   (33)
33 (32) Sporangia without glands; proximal shortened pinnae with basal segments not enlarged.   32 C. gustavii
+ Sporangia bearing glands on stalks; proximal shortened pinnae with enlarged basal segments.   33 C. wulingshanensis
34 (27) Veinlets ca. 2 pairs beneath sinus; rhizomes erect to suberect.   34 C. jinghongensis
+ Veinlets more than 2 pairs beneath sinus; rhizomes shortly to long creeping   (35)
35 (34) Pinnae with ellipsoid glands throughout (along and between veins) abaxially.   35 C. jaculosus
+ Pinnae with clavate glands abaxially   (36)
36 (35) Veinlets ca. 3 pairs beneath sinus; lateral pinnae oblanceolate; glands sparse   36 C. ensifer
+ Veinlets more than 3 pairs beneath sinus; lateral pinnae linear-lanceolate or lanceolate; glands dense   (37)
37 (36) Veinlets straight and oblique; pinnae linear-lanceolate, lobed to 1/3 toward costae, sometimes only serrate.   37 C. aridus
+ Veinlets usually spreading and curved; pinnae lanceolate, usually more lobed than above   (38)
38 (37) Pinnae subglabrous abaxially; proximal pinnae decurrent toward bases.   38 C. cuneatus
+ Pinnae densely hairy abaxially; proximal pinnae truncate or rounded at bases   (39)
39 (38) Rhizomes 2-3 mm in diam.; fronds distant; proximal shortened pinnae not or slightly narrower than middle ones.   39 C. fukienensis
+ Rhizomes 5-10 mm in diam.; fronds approximate; proximal shortened pinnae much narrower than middle ones.   40 C. subelatus

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