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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Acanthaceae

35. Cystacanthus T. Anderson, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 9: 457. 1867.

鳔冠花属 biao guan hua shu

Authors: Jia-qi Hu & Thomas F. Daniel

Shrubs or perennial herbs, with cystoliths. Leaf blade margin entire or obscurely crenate. Inflorescences thyrses or rarely axillary cymes or racemes; bracteoles 2, small. Calyx deeply 5-lobed; lobes usually covered with gland-tipped trichomes. Corolla orange or pink, funnel-shaped, usually bent ca. 90º and abruptly inflated near middle; limb 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed, lobes orbicular or ovate and equal; upper lip 2-lobed; lobes ascending cochlear in bud. Stamens 2, included; anthers 2-thecous; thecae parallel, equal, hirsute, muticous at base; staminodes 2. Ovary ovoid, long hirsute; style filiform; stigma 2-cleft. Capsule cylindric, 8-12-seeded; retinacula present. Seeds ovate in outline, compressed, tomentose.

About 15 species: mainland Asia; eight species (three endemic) in China.

Five of the Chinese species treated here in Cystacanthus have also been treated in Phlogacanthus. In addition to the macromorphological characteristics (geniculate corolla with an inflated throat in Cystacanthus) distinguishing Cystacanthus and Phlogacanthus, R. W. Scotland (Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 72: 229-243. 1992) discussed palynological differences between them in ornamentation of the aperture margins (i.e., aperture margins with spines ± restricted to a single row in Phlogacanthus and with the spines throughout the aperture margin in Cystacanthus). A thorough reevaluation of taxa treated in these two genera will be necessary to determine whether both genera are worthy of recognition and if so, to which genus each species pertains.

1 Corolla outside pubescent with gland-tipped trichomes   (2)
+ Corolla outside glabrous or non-glandular pubescent   (5)
2 (1) Thyrses to 2.5 cm, 3- or 4-flowered.   1 C. affinis
+ Thyrses longer than 5 cm, many flowered   (3)
3 (2) Corolla purple; leaf blade oblong to oblong-lanceolate.   2 C. paniculatus
+ Corolla blue, red, white, or purplish blue; leaf blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate   (4)
4 (3) Young stems pubescent but not densely whitish or yellowish brown villous.   3 C. yangtsekiangensis
+ Young stems densely whitish to yellowish brown villous.   4 C. yunnanensis
5 (1) Bracts leaflike, much longer than calyx; corolla glabrous outside.   5 C. pyramidalis
+ Bracts small and not leaflike, subequal to calyx; corolla pubescent outside   (6)
6 (5) Leaf blade secondary veins ca. 6 on each side of midvein.   6 C. abbreviatus
+ Leaf blade secondary veins 9-17 on each side of midvein   (7)
7 (6) Leaf blade secondary veins 9-11 on each side of midvein; inflorescences spikelike thyrses; rachis with 1 flower per node; calyx ca. 6 mm; corolla densely pubescent outside.   7 C. vitellinus
+ Leaf blade secondary veins 12-17 on each side of midvein; inflorescences paniculate thyrses; rachis with several flowers per node; calyx ca. 3 mm; corolla sparsely pubescent outside.   8 C. colaniae

Lower Taxa


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