11. Dimocarpus Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 233. 1790.
龙眼属 long yan shu
Euphoria Commerson ex Jussieu; Pseudonephelium Radlkofer.
Trees or shrubs, usually monoecious. Leaves paripinnate; leaflets opposite or subopposite, entire or serrate. Thyrses usually large, terminal, or fascicles, stellate or tomentose; bracts and bracteoles subulate, small. Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic. Calyx cupular; sepals 5, imbricate, stellate or tomentose. Petals 5 or 1-4, sometimes absent, usually spatulate or lanceolate, without scales. Disk acetabuliform. Stamens (male flowers) often 8, exserted; filaments hirsute; anthers ellipsoid. Ovary (female flowers) obcordiform, 2- or 3-lobed and 2- or 3-loculed, densely tuberculate, tufted stellate and tomentose on tubercles; ovules 1 per locule; style between ovary lobes; stigma 2- or 3-lobed. Fruit deeply lobed into 2 or 3 schizocarps, usually 1 or 2 developed; fertile schizocarp berrylike, subglobose, with small sterile schizocarps at base, pericarp leathery (crustaceous when dry), endocarp papery. Seeds subglobose or ellipsoid; testa leathery, smooth; hilum elliptic, slightly large; pseudotesta fleshy, embedding all or half of seed; embryo straight, cotyledons thick. 2n = 30.
About seven species: S and SE Asia from Sri Lanka and India to E Malesia; Australia; cultivated in subtropical regions; four species (one endemic) in China.
See the revision by Leenhouts (Blumea 19: 113-131. 1971).