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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Equisetaceae

1. Equisetum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1061. 1753.

木贼属 mu zei shu

Equisetum ramosissimum

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Allostelites Börner; Hippochaete Milde; Presla Dulac.

Morphological characters and geographic distribution are the same as those of the family.

Equisetum lyi H. Léveillé (Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 6: 506. 1906) was described from Guizhou ("Pin-Fa"). It could not be treated here because the current authors could not trace any specimens, including the type, which was stated in the protologue to be in the herbarium of the Académie internationale de géographie botanique.


1 Aerial stems lasting more than one year; main stem often unbranched; stomata sunken, in one row; strobili mucronate apically; sheath teeth membranous, deciduous, light brown or gray (E. subg. Hippochaete (Milde) Baker)   (2)
+ Aerial stems lasting one year or less; main stem often branched in regular whorls; stomata located on surfaces of aerial branches, in several rows; strobili blunt apically; sheath teeth leathery, persistent, blackish brown or reddish brown (E. subg. Equisetum)   (5)
       
2 (1) Aerial stems irregularly undulate; main stem ca. 0.6 mm in diam., solid and without longitudinal canals in center, 7- or more ridged, with 3(-5) sheath teeth.   10 E. scirpoides
+ Aerial stems not irregularly undulate; main stem more than 1 mm in diam., hollow and with longitudinal canals in center, 6-ridged, with 6 or more sheath teeth   (3)
       
3 (2) Mature main stem branched in whorls; sheath tubes grayish white or slightly reddish brown at apex.   7 E. ramosissimum
+ Mature main stem unbranched or rarely branched but not in whorls; sheath tubes blackish brown at apex   (4)
       
4 (3) Main stem robust, 5-9 mm in diam. at middle, up to 1 m tall or taller; apices of sheath teeth falling off early; sheath teeth 2-ridged abaxially.   8 E. hyemale
+ Main stem slender, (1-)2-3(-4) mm in diam. at middle, 18-50 cm tall; sheath teeth persistent, 4-ridged abaxially.   9 E. variegatum
       
5 (1) Aerial stems monomorphic, fertile stems same as sterile stems morphologically or young fertile stems slightly different from sterile branches   (6)
+ Aerial stems dimorphic, fertile stems without or with few shorter and finer whorled branches, obviously different from sterile branches   (8)
       
6 (5) Plants large; aerial branches 40-60 cm, main stem 3-6 mm in diam. at middle; internodes of lower 1-3 nodes of main stems reddish brown, lustrous; main stem not branched in whorls or branched in whorls but branches much thinner than main stem.   3 E. fluviatile
+ Plants small; aerial branches 10-30 cm, main stem 1-2 mm in diam. at middle; internodes of lower 1-3 nodes of main stems blackish brown, not lustrous; main stem branched in whorls   (7)
       
7 (6) Two sides of ridges of main stem and lateral branches with raised edges; upper main stem and lateral branches with 1 row of tubercles reaching apex of sheath teeth and a deep groove going through back of sheaths.   1 E. diffusum
+ Two sides of ridges of main stem and lateral branches rounded, with neither edges nor tubercles (but only laterally cut); groove shallow, going through back of sheaths.   2 E. palustre
       
8 (5) Main sterile branch plus lateral branches narrower than 10 cm; whorled lateral branches of sterile branch pointing upward and forming a 30?or smaller angle with main stem; lateral branches approximately half of main stem in diam.; main stem branched or unbranched below middle; fertile branch unbranched.   6 E. arvense
+ Main sterile branch plus lateral branches up to 20 cm wide; whorled lateral branches of sterile branch pointing laterally or slightly upward and forming a 45?90?angle with main stem; lateral branches much thinner than half of main stem in diam.; main stem unbranched below middle; fertile branch eventually branched   (9)
       
9 (8) Sheath teeth of sterile branch (2 or)3-5-lobed; lobes ovate-deltoid, reddish brown, two sides of ridges often with bristlelike protuberances; sheath teeth of lateral branches open.   4 E. sylvaticum
+ Sheath teeth of sterile branch 14-22-lobed; lobes narrowly deltoid, blackish brown at middle and light brown on margins, two sides of ridges often with tubercles; sheath teeth of lateral branches not open.   5 E. pratense

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