121. Eschenbachia Moench, Methodus. 573. 1794.
白酒草属 bai jiu cao shu
Authors: Yilin Chen & Luc Brouillet
Dimorphanthes Cassini; Edemias Rafinesque.
Herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial. Stems erect, simple or branched, hirsute or strigose. Leaves alternate, margin entire, serrulate to coarsely serrate, pinnatipartite, or pinnatilobed. Capitula disciform, few to numerous, in corymbiform, sometimes glomerate, glomerate-paniculiform, or paniculiform synflorescences, rarely cymiform, rarely solitary. Involucre campanulate to hemispheric-campanulate; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, imbricate, obovate to ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, or linear, membranous, green ± widely along midvein, margin and apex scarious. Receptacles hemispheric-flattened, hemispheric-conic to lenticular-knobby, alveolate (central part bearing disk florets distinctly with wider alveolae), fimbriate. Florets fertile. Ray florets female, numerous, white, corolla reduced to filiform tube, elaminate, ca. 1/2 as long as style; disk florets bisexual, few to numerous, yellow or yellowish, limb funnelform, lobes 5; anther base obtuse; style branch tip short. Achenes oblong or lanceolate, compressed, ± strigillose, sometimes glandular, margin 2-ribbed. Pappus white to yellowish white or cinnamon to ± reddish, 1-seriate, sometimes basally connate in a ring, often deciduous, of subequal, fine, barbellulate bristles.
Number of species uncertain: Africa, S Asia; six species (three endemic) in China.
The genus Conyza Lessing, nom. cons., to which African and Asian species have been traditionally referred, is an American taxon that is phylogenetically nested within Erigeron, where it is treated here (only introduced species are in China). African and Asian species, however, do not belong to the North American clade but to the unrelated subtribe Grangeinae of the Astereae (Brouillet et al. in Funk et al., Syst. Evol. Biogeogr. Compositae, 589-629. 2009), an African group that repeatedly dispersed to S Asia. Eschenbachia is typified by E. globosa Moench, nom. illeg. superfl., based on Erigeron aegyptiacus Linnaeus. Eschenbachia aegyptiaca is part of the African subtribe Grangeinae (J. S. Strijk, pers. comm.). Most native Chinese species previously treated under Conyza appear assignable to Eschenbachia (except for C. stricta, species incertae sedis). The description of the genus given here is based solely on the species present in China.
Conyza stricta Willdenow, Sp. Pl. 3: 1922. 1803.
劲直白酒草 jin zhi bai jiu cao
Herbs, annual, woody taprooted, and fibrous rooted. Stems erect, 30-65 cm tall, finely striate, multibranched from base or middle, branches slender, strict, densely grayish scabrous, ± densely sessile or short-stipitate glandular, densely leafy. Basal leaves fallen at anthesis; lower and mid cauline petiole narrowly winged, base subclasping, blade obovate, sometimes oblanceolate, 3-5.5 × 0.5-1.3 cm, surfaces densely grayish scabrous, densely sessile or short-stipitate glandular, lateral veins 3- or 4-paired, abaxially distinct, base cuneate or attenuate, margin coarsely serrate or pinnatilobate, mucronulate, rarely entire, apex obtuse, mucronate, or apiculate; mid upper sessile, linear-oblanceolate, 1.2-2 × 0.2-0.4 cm, 1-veined, margin entire, sometimes 3-fid; uppermost gradually reduced, linear. Capitula (2-)3 mm in diam., numerous, in dense compound-corymbose synflorescences; peduncles 2-4 mm, densely villous-scabrous. Receptacle convex, ± alveolate, not fimbriate. Involucre campanulate, 2-2.5 mm in diam.; phyllaries 3-seriate, linear-lanceolate, margin narrowly scarious, entire, apex acuminate, outer green, ca. 1.6 mm, villous-scabrous, sessile glandular, inner green along midvein, 1.5-4 mm, apex ± reflexed. Florets yellow, fertile. Ray florets female, 1.1-1.7 mm, tube sparsely hairy, lamina white, linear, 0.4-0.46 mm, sometimes 2- or 3-lacerate, ± equaling or sometimes shorter than style; disk florets 4 or 5(-7), bisexual, narrowly funnelform, 1.6-2.1 mm, tube 0.8-1.4 mm, sparsely hairy, limb 0.7-0.9 mm, lobes 0.3-0.5 mm, lanceolate, glandular, sometimes eglandular. Achenes narrowly ovate, 0.3-0.65 mm, sparsely strigose, margin slightly 2-ribbed. Pappus orangish, ± 2-seriate, outer very short, thin, inner of 12-15 barbellate bristles 1-1.9 mm, almost equaling disk corollas. Fl. (Aug-)Sep-Nov.
Grasslands on slopes, field margins; 1100-2600 m. Hainan, Sichuan, S Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam; E Africa].
1a. Lower leaf margin coarsely serrate, rarely entire; upper leaves gradually reduced ...... var. stricta
1b. Lower leaf margin deeply repand-pinnatilobate, lobes 2-paired, oblong-oblanceolate or cuneate, margin entire, terminal lobe larger; upper leaves and those on branches 3-fid ...... var. pinnatifida
Conyza stricta var. stricta
劲直白酒草(原变种) jin zhi bai jiu cao (yuan bian zhong)
Stems 30-65 cm tall, branched. Lower leaf margin coarsely serrate, rarely entire; upper leaves gradually reduced, simple. Fl. Sep-Nov.
Grasslands on slopes, field margins; 1100-2300 m. Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam; E Africa].
Conyza stricta var. pinnatifida Kitamura in H. Hara, Fl. E. Himalaya, 337. 1966.
羽裂白酒草 yu lie bai jiu cao
Erigeron pinnatifidus D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 172. 1825, not Thunberg (1800); Conyza absinthifolia Candolle; C. mairei H. Léveillé; C. pinnatifida Buchanan-Hamilton ex Roxburgh (Oct-Dec 1832), not (Thunberg) Lessing (Jul-Aug 1832), nor Franchet (1896), nor Dunn (1903); E. trisulcus D. Don.
Stems 30-45 cm tall, usually branched from middle or base, rarely simple. Lower leaf margin deeply repand-pinnatilobate, lobes 2-paired, oblong-oblanceolate or cuneate, margin entire, terminal lobe larger; upper leaves and those on branches 3-fid. Fl. Aug-Nov.
Grasslands on slopes; 1800-2600 m. Sichuan, S Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].