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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Cucurbitaceae

3. Gynostemma Blume, Bijdr. 23. 1825.

绞股蓝属 jiao gu lan shu

Authors: Shukun Chen & Charles Jeffrey

Enkylia Griffith; Pestalozzia Zollinger & Moritzi; Trirostellum Z. P. Wang & Q. Z. Xie.

Herbs, perennial, scandent, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves alternate, pedate, with 3-9 leaflets, rarely simple; leaflet blade ovate-lanceolate. Tendrils bifurcate, rarely simple. Plants dioecious, rarely monoecious. Flowers unisexual, in racemes or panicles, axillary or terminal; pedicel articulate; bracteole basal. Male flower: calyx tube short, 5-lobed; segments narrowly lanceolate; corolla greenish or white, rotate, deeply 5-lobed; segments lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, involute in bud; stamens 5, inserted at base of perianth tube; filaments short, connate; anthers erect, ovoid, 2-celled, dehiscence longitudinal; connective narrow, but not extended; pollen grains globose or elliptic, longitudinally striate or smooth, dehiscent by pores; rudimentary pistil absent. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male flower; staminodes present; ovary globose, 2-5-locular; styles 3, rarely 2, 4, or 5, free; stigmas 2 or 1 and crescent-shaped and irregularly incised-dentate; ovules 2, pendulous in each locule. Berry globose, in form and size like a pea, or capsule, 3-lobed from top, top umbonulate or with 3 persistent long styles. Seeds 2 or 3, broadly ovate, compressed, with papillae or spiniform papillae.

About 17 species: tropical Asia to E Asia, from the Himalaya to Japan, Malaysia, and New Guinea; 14 species (nine endemic) in China.

1 Capsule campanulate, dehiscent when mature along ventral suture, 3-lobed; persistent styles 3(-5), long rostriform   (2)
+ Berry globose or depressed-globose, not dehiscent; persistent styles short, umbonate, never rostrate   (7)
2 (1) Female flowers solitary or paired, axillary, pedicel 3-4 cm; ovary 5-locular, styles 5.   1 G. pentagynum
+ Female flowers numerous, in racemes or panicles, axillary or terminal, pedicel shorter than 5 mm; ovary 3-locular, styles 3   (3)
3 (2) Female flowers in lax panicle; fruit stalk 8-10 mm.   6 G. laxiflorum
+ Female flowers in spiciform racemes; fruit stalk shorter than 5 mm   (4)
4 (3) Stigma crescent-shaped and irregularly incised-dentate, style 2.5-3 mm, or thick and short, ca. 0.5 mm   (5)
+ Stigma 2-lobed, forked, never crescent-shaped, style shorter than 0.5 mm   (6)
5 (4) Styles thin and long, 2.5-3 mm; persistent styles up to 5 mm; side of seed not sulcate and without wing.   2 G. yixingense
+ Styles short and thick; persistent styles shortly rostriform; seed broadly cordate, margin sulcate and with narrow wing.   3 G. cardiospermum
6 (4) Fruit ca. 3 mm in diam., glabrous, dark punctate; leaves with 5 elliptic leaflets.   4 G. microspermum
+ Fruit 5-6 mm in diam., white villous, without dark spots; leaves with 5-7 obovate-elliptic leaflets.   5 G. aggregatum
7 (1) Leaves simple.   7 G. simplicifolium
+ Leaves compound, pedate   (8)
8 (7) Stem 3-angled, with narrow wings.   14 G. caulopterum
+ Stem cylindrical, with longitudinal striae, but without wings   (9)
9 (8) Leaves with 3-5 leaflets   (10)
+ Leaves with (3-)5-7(-9) leaflets   (11)
10 (9) Leaf smooth, glabrous on both surfaces, or with hairs only along midrib; stem with only sparse hairs at nodes; corolla segments narrowly lanceolate, 2-3 mm.   8 G. laxum
+ Leaf blade and stem all densely pubescent; corolla segments oblong-elliptic, ca. 2 mm.   9 G. "burmanicum"
11 (9) Fruit densely hirsute-pubescent; stem stout.   10 G. pentaphyllum
+ Fruit glabrous; stem slender   (12)
12 (11) Fruit stalk shorter than 5 mm; leaves sparsely to densely pubescent.   10 G. pentaphyllum
+ Fruit stalk 7-25 mm   (13)
13 (12) Plants monoecious; fruit 3-angled-obovoid or 3-angled-oblate.   11 G. guangxiense
+ Plants dioecious; fruit globose or obtriangular   (14)
14 (13) Fruit obtriangular, compressed; leaflets 5-7, elliptic or elliptic-ovate.   12 G. compressum
+ Fruit globose; leaflets 7-9, rhombic-elliptic or obovate-lanceolate.   13 G. longipes

  • List of lower taxa


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