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42. Heterostemma Wight & Arnott in Wight, Contr. Bot. India. 42. 1834.

醉魂藤属 zui hun teng shu

Lianas, sometimes rooting adventitiously, old stems sometimes developing prominent corky wings. Leaves opposite, long petiolate, usually 3-5-veined at base, sometimes strictly pinnately veined. Inflorescences umbel-like or producing a succession of cymules and eventually racemelike, sessile or pedunculate. Calyx glands 5. Corolla rotate to broadly campanulate [urceolate to globose]; lobes twisted to left or valvate. Corona lobes 5, stellate spreading or suberect, fleshy, adaxially often tuberculate, keeled or appendaged, apex entire, dentate, or lobed. Filaments connate into a tube, anther appendages short and obtuse; pollinia 2 per pollinarium, erect or subhorizontal, margin of inner angle raised and translucent. Stigma head dilated. Follicles linear or cylindric, usually paired, narrowly divergent to strongly reflexed, smooth. Seeds with coma.

About 30 species: China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia; nine species in China.

The occurrence of Heterostemma villosum Costantin in China has not been confirmed. Material so named seems better regarded as a hairy form of H. esquirolii.

1 Peduncle up to 3 mm, sometimes obsolete.   (2)
+ Peduncle 5-55 mm.   (5)
2 (1) Stems pilose all around; leaves conspicuously uniformly pubescent, almost pilose   3 Heterostemma menghaiense
+ Stems with 2 lines of hairs, sometimes glabrescent; leaves minutely appressed pubescent.   (3)
3 (2) Internodes glabrescent; inflorescences umbel-like; corolla 6-8 mm in diam.   4 Heterostemma wallichii
+ Internodes with 2 lines of persistent pilose hairs; inflorescences becoming racemelike; corolla 8-14(-22) mm in diam.   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade membranous to thin papery, base cuneate; pedicels 1.5-3 cm, very slender and threadlike; follicles narrowly divergent   2 Heterostemma esquirolii
+ Leaf blade leathery, base rounded to truncate; pedicels 0.8-1.8(-3) cm, not threadlike; follicles widely divergent   6 Heterostemma oblongifolium
5 (1) Inflorescences with 2 or more umbel-like cymules spaced along zigzag rachis; outer corona lobes linear, fleshy, gynostegium narrowed above these; corolla chocolate brown   9 Heterostemma sinicum
+ Inflorescences with a single cymule, rarely a second in unusually robust material, sometimes elongated and branched; corona lobes lanceolate to circular, flattened, gynostegium rounded to almost flat, not narrowed above outer corona lobes; corolla yellow, orange, or green, sometimes with spots.   (6)
6 (5) Corona lobes longer than corolla limb and projecting beyond sinus between corolla lobes   5 Heterostemma siamicum
+ Corona lobes shorter than corolla limb.   (7)
7 (6) Leaves with basal veins all winged abaxially; peduncle 1.5-3 cm; follicles narrowly divergent   1 Heterostemma brownii
+ Leaves with basal veins rounded to flattened abaxially; peduncle 0.5-1.5(-2.5) cm; follicles (where known) widely divergent.   (8)
8 (7) Leaf blade (7-)10-19 cm; corolla lobes 8-12 × 4.5-6 mm, yellow with darker (?brown) spots; corona raised in center but without basal tubercles   7 Heterostemma grandiflorum
+ Leaf blade 3-8 cm; corolla lobes ca. 5 × 3.5 mm, uniformly colored, lobes revolute; corona lobes each with a basal tubercle   8 Heterostemma tsoongii

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