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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae

100. Hordeum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753.

大麦属 da mai shu

Critesion Rafinesque.

Plants annual or perennial. Culms usually erect. Leaf sheath of cauline leaves split almost to base; ligule membranous or leathery-membranous; auricles present or absent; leaf blade usually flat. Spike dense, usually without a terminal spikelet; rachis short, brittle, rarely flexible. Spikelets usually 3 per node, in regular rows, with 1(or 2) florets; lateral spikelets usually pedicellate, rarely sessile, often reduced and much smaller than central spikelet; central spikelet usually sessile, rarely pedicellate, perfect. Glumes narrow, subulate-setaceous, sometimes lanceolate dilated at base, inconspicuously 1–3-veined, not keeled. Lemma subrounded abaxially, leathery, rarely leathery-membranous, 5-veined, not keeled, awned or awnless. Palea almost equaling lemma, glabrous, scabrous, or ciliate along keels. Lodicules broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-ovate. Caryopsis usually adnate to lemma and palea, rarely free, oblong, concave furrowed on inner side, apex hairy. x = 7.

Between 30 and 40 species: temperate regions, also on subtropical mountains; ten species (one endemic, two introduced) in China.

In addition to the species treated below, Hordeum bulbosum Linnaeus has been recorded as cultivated in China (FRPS 9(3):30. 1987).

All species when young are used for forage.

1 Plants perennial; glumes subulate-setaceous, not lanceolate dilated at base   (2)
+ Plants annual; glumes lanceolate dilated at base   (6)
2 (1) Glumes much (usually more than 10 ×) longer than floret.   5 H. jubatum
+ Glumes shorter to slightly longer than floret   (3)
3 (2) Nodes of culms glabrous   (4)
+ Nodes of culms pubescent   (5)
4 (3) Central spikelet with 2 florets, distal floret usually sterile; anthers 2–2.3 mm.   1 H. innermongolicum
+ Central spikelet usually with 1 floret; anthers 1–1.7 mm.   3 H. roshevitzii
5 (3) Central spikelet lemma apex acute, acuminate, or with short awn usually shorter than lemma body; anthers 2–4 mm.   2 H. brevisubulatum
+ Central spikelet lemma apex with awn 5–10 mm and usually longer than lemma body; anthers 1.1–2 mm.   4 H. bogdanii
6 (1) Spike distichous   (7)
+ Spike hexastichous   (8)
7 (6) Rachis of spike brittle.   6 H. spontaneum
+ Rachis of spike flexible.   7 H. distichon
8 (6) Rachis of spike flexible.   10 H. vulgare
+ Rachis of spike brittle   (9)
9 (8) Lateral spikelets shortly pedicellate.   8 H. lagunculiforme
+ Lateral spikelets sessile.   9 H. agriocrithon

  • List of lower taxa


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