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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Rhamnaceae

2. Hovenia Thunberg, Nov. Gen. Pl. 7. 1781.

枳椇属 zhi ju shu

Deciduous trees or rarely shrubs, to 25 m tall. Young branches often pilose or tomentose. Leaves alternate, long petiolate, 3-veined from base, primary vein with 4-8 pairs of secondary veins, leaf base ± oblique, margin serrate. Flowers white or yellow-green, bisexual, 5-merous, in terminal or axillary, cymose panicles. Calyx tube hemispherical; lobes triangular, adaxially ± distinctly keeled. Petals elliptic to ovate, shortly clawed at base, rarely slightly emarginate apically, often ± completely enfolding stamens, ± widely reflexed during anthesis. Stamens enfolded by petals; filaments lanceolate-linear; anthers dorsifixed. Disk subrounded, thick, fleshy, often ± densely pubescent, rarely glabrous, filling calyx tube. Ovary semi-inferior, nearly completely immersed in disk, 3-loculed, with 1 ovule per locule; style 2- or 3-fid, ± deeply branched. Drupe subglobose, glabrous to densely hairy, base with persistent calyx tube, apex with rudimentary style; mesocarp leathery, often separating from membranous endocarp; peduncles and pedicels of infructescence becoming distinctly fleshy and juicy at fruit maturity. Seeds 3, brownish to blackish, shiny, oblate to orbicular, often spotted with minute pits.

Three species: Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal; three species in China.

The hard timber with fine-grained wood is good for making furniture. The dilating peduncles of the infructescence are sweet and edible. The seeds are used medicinally.

1 Sepals and fruit densely ferruginous tomentose.   3 H. trichocarpa
+ Sepals and fruit glabrous, rarely pilose   (2)
2 (1) Flowers in terminal, or rarely axillary, asymmetrical cymose panicles; style undivided to shortly branched; fruit black at maturity, 6.5-7.5 mm in diam.; leaf margin irregularly or coarsely serrate.   1 H. dulcis
+ Flowers in terminal or axillary, symmetrical, dichasial cymose panicles; style deeply branched to at least half of its length; fruit yellow at maturity, 5-6.5 mm in diam.; leaf margin shallowly obtusely serrulate.   2 H. acerba

Lower Taxa


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